The Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States, were adopted in 1781 and remained in effect until 1789, when they were replaced by the current Constitution of the United States. Despite being an important step in the formation of the country, the Articles of Confederation ultimately proved to be inadequate and were unable to effectively govern the newly independent nation.
One of the main reasons for the failure of the Articles of Confederation was the lack of a strong central government. Under the Articles, the national government did not have the power to levy taxes or regulate trade, and it could not enforce its laws or decisions. This left the states with a great deal of autonomy and power, but it also meant that the national government was unable to effectively address issues that affected the country as a whole.
Another issue with the Articles of Confederation was the lack of a strong executive branch. The Articles provided for a weak presidency, with no veto power and no ability to appoint judges or other officials. This lack of executive authority made it difficult for the national government to effectively carry out its duties and responsibilities.
In addition, the Articles of Confederation did not adequately address issues related to money and finance. The national government did not have the power to issue its own currency, and it was unable to collect taxes or duties from the states. This left the national government heavily reliant on voluntary contributions from the states, which were often insufficient to fund the government's operations.
Finally, the Articles of Confederation did not provide for a system of federal courts, leaving the states to handle legal disputes and enforce national laws. This lack of a uniform legal system made it difficult for the national government to effectively govern the country and maintain order.
Overall, the Articles of Confederation failed because they did not provide for a strong and effective central government that could effectively govern the country and address the needs of the nation. While the Articles were an important step in the formation of the United States, they ultimately proved to be inadequate and were replaced by the current Constitution, which established a stronger central government with the power to levy taxes, regulate trade, and enforce its laws.
Sydney's urban renewal project
Fishermans Bend is an ambitious urban renewal project that will bring together 80,000 residents and another 80,000 commuting workers. State Library of NSW. After going through approximately three decades of urban decline, the Pyrmont-Ultimo area finally went throught urban renewal! Parramatta Square will also be home to a state-of-the-art civic and community building attached to a refurbished Town Hall. Nevertheless, the concept of legacy on the community, environment and issues of urban renewal has both negative and positive effects. Most legacies are being built through the application of the principle of sustainable urbanism as proposed by Roche 2000, p. South West Growth Area 15. If that area wasn't renewed than what would have other countries thought of Australia? Indeed the concept of building great cities through legacy leverage achieved through events is evidently successful in London.
Urban renewal and regeneration in Sydney, Australia: council reflections of the planning and development process — Macquarie University
Changes due to Urban Renewal in Pyrmont-Ultimo In 1900, Pyrmont was an important port and industrial area, with a population of almost 30 000 people. Impact of Urban Renewal on the physical and human environment. In the 1900s, Pyrmont was one of the busiest and best port facilities in Australia. Use discount It is imperative to note that although sporting events in host countries are beneficial; there are negative effects that are sometimes inevitable Brogan 1996, p. The author notes that sporting events are indeed crucial in setting the developmental phase of urban settings as it was the case with Sydney and London.
This helps in creating participative urban populations which are out to champion for development. Bayside West Precinct 6. A fragmented response is compounded by the fact that the actors involved are typically small scale and local: to date, this is not the territory of large national developers. New housing and areas for recreation, retail, tourism, commercial and maritime use will all be on the table for consideration at the international summit to be held on 20 November this year. A city is therefore an entity which has a give and get relationship with its dwellers. Retrieved 9 January 2012. With a drop in average annual rainfall in recent years, the Australian government has released billions of dollars in funding to develop the water infrastructure needed to optimise and conserve water use and make cities more resilient.
Sydney and London achieved a spectacular gain by hosting the Olympics. Lupton, R 2005, Renewing The City: Reflections On Community Development And Urban Renewal, Inter Varsity Press, Georgia. For instance, Brogan 1996, p. . Pascoe Vale has been around for a long time now and many people have come and lived in this suburb. Due to the Olympic Games, the city has experienced a restoration of its original planning.
Legacy Leverage, Urbanism and City Renewal in Sydney and London
For instance, during Olympic periods in London, most inhabitants opt to leave the city to give room for the preparations. From a careful review of history, it is evident that most of the bids made by host countries to protect the physical environment are not always successful. In the absence of detailed policy, however effective governance structures and public funding, it can be anticipated that urban renewal will take place in an ad hoc way with little regard to either the impact of housing affordability or the broader social, economic and environmental outcomes which may be delivered. Consequently, this attracts inward investments by the community in order to underpin the renewal and regeneration of the new infrastructure Paddison1993, p. In 1984, the state government developed a program that would renew the Pyrmont-Ultimo area. There is the making of new urban policies, great figures like the Olympic stadium have been constructed in bid to ensure stipulated smart designs useful in legacy building.
Gentrification, Urban Renewal: Suburbs You Won't Recognise In A Decade
It was given that the people would be ceaselessly obsessed and geared up for the games. Having become the attention of international media, this compels the host country to adopt improved architectural and planning designs in urban centers. Notably, major changes are observed in the host city and specifically the viability of transport infrastructure. At an abstract level, the arguments appear logical. Three kilometres south of Sydney CBD, the inner-eastern suburb of Zetland has a long industrial past — best known for car assembly and most recently, its Naval stores facility. Hence, urban environments become satisfying and bear a more permanent impact if they capture the delight of a large population.
Sydney proposes massive urban renewal project, calls for world’s best designers [Video]
Indeed, it is true that the cities were up to a transforming experience. There are also plans to export recycled water to new buildings nearby, such as the Crown Sydney Hotel Resort and One Sydney Harbour, due for completion in 2021. This plan would relocated families, demolish houses and create low-income housing. New York: Cambridge University Press. This corporation had the job of redeveloping the entire Pyrmont-Ultimo area. To some extent, the events can cause negative publicity for the cities since they are strictly scrutinized by the international media.
It took four years for that program to finish. Furthermore, it is vital to note that the resulting legacy provides a sustainable solution to the immediate community and the neighborhoods in host cities. The East village development has brought 50 speciality shops including restaurants, cafés and a gym, along with a fresh food marketplace and Coles Supermarket. Moreover, instead of the community supporting the new architecture, they may grossly interfere with it. Development studies seek to improve uniqueness and innovativeness in all city programs.
For instance, during the year 2000 games in Sydney, a pledge was made in relation to environmental conservation Searle 2002, p. Change is the most important ingredient towards acknowledgeable development of cities Ellin 2006, p. The efforts of international communities to create international cooperation and cohesion through international events are a base for city modification. North West Growth Area 13. The use of cultural inclusion in daily life has led to the establishment of cities which have stronger identity.