Emotions are complex psychological and physiological responses to stimuli that can range from positive (e.g., joy, love) to negative (e.g., anger, fear). These responses involve various cognitive, behavioral, and physiological processes that can influence how we think, feel, and behave. Throughout history, there have been numerous theories proposed to understand the nature and function of emotions.
One early theory of emotion is the James-Lange theory, which suggests that emotions are the result of physiological arousal. According to this theory, when we encounter a stimulus that evokes an emotional response, our bodies experience physiological changes (e.g., increased heart rate, sweating) that are then interpreted by our brains as a particular emotion. For example, if we see a snake, our bodies might experience an increase in heart rate and sweating, which our brains interpret as fear.
Another theory of emotion is the Cannon-Bard theory, which suggests that emotions and physiological arousal occur simultaneously. According to this theory, when we encounter a stimulus, the brain processes the stimulus and simultaneously sends signals to the body to experience the corresponding physiological arousal and to the brain to experience the emotional response. This theory challenges the James-Lange theory by suggesting that emotions are not simply the result of physiological arousal, but rather are a combination of cognitive and physiological processes.
A more recent theory of emotion is the Schachter-Singer theory, also known as the two-factor theory. This theory suggests that emotions are the result of both physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation of that arousal. According to this theory, when we encounter a stimulus, our bodies experience physiological arousal, but we do not experience a specific emotion until we cognitively interpret that arousal. For example, if we see a snake and experience increased heart rate and sweating, we might interpret that arousal as fear if we are in a situation where a snake would be dangerous, or as excitement if we are at a zoo and know the snake is behind glass.
Another theory of emotion is the cognitive appraisal theory, which suggests that emotions are the result of our cognitive evaluation of a situation. According to this theory, when we encounter a stimulus, we cognitively appraise the situation and then experience the corresponding emotion based on our evaluation. For example, if we see a snake and evaluate the situation as dangerous, we might experience fear. If we see a snake at a zoo and evaluate the situation as safe, we might experience curiosity or interest.
Overall, these theories of emotion highlight the complexity of emotions and the various cognitive and physiological processes that contribute to our emotional responses. While each theory offers a unique perspective on the nature and function of emotions, it is likely that emotions involve a combination of these processes and may vary depending on the individual and the specific emotion being experienced.
Overview of the 6 Major Theories of Emotion
AER works like riding a bicycle. Additionally, the model is suitable for encapsulating individual emotional states based on the continuous alternation of mixed emotions over time. . Thus, the theory states that individuals identify their emotions based on their observations of the environment and their comparisons to others. According to this theory, the felt emotion and bodily reactions in emotion are independent of each other, both are triggered simultaneously.
Theories of Emotion: Expressing, Feeling, Acting: Pia Campeggiani: Bloomsbury Academic
One of the most preferred dimensional models is a two-dimensional model that uses arousal, activation, or excitation on one dimension, versus valence, appraisal, or evaluation on the other. However, what must they be? It might interest you. Other features will be discussed in the course of this article. You will find similar such experience in your lives. Therefore, it does not consider the non-cognitive factors of emotion, such as the influence of personality.
In the following section, we will look more closely at the neuroscience of emotional response. Hence, the disagreement between the cognitive and the non-cognitive positions primarily entails the early part of the emotion process. Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. We noted that challenges in both resources and systems. These affective spectrum interrelationships was presented in terms of a spatial model in the form of a circle, where, opposite feelings located opposite to each other as shown in Fig. Despite the conceptual and methodological problems with ANS arousal, a number of early researchers in intergroup relations e.
Love is also can be considered as social emotion by virtue of representing human kindness, compassion, and affection actions towards other humans, society or animals. . New York: Oxford University Press. Both types of modeling are compatible with each other. American Psychologist, 39, 117—123. Evolutionary theorists tend to downplay the influence of thought and learning on emotion, although they acknowledge that both can have an effect. According to this theory, lower parts of brain,such as thalamus is activated by environmental stimuli.
. However, there are lot of arguments about the working of this theory. In some contexts, Nussbaum treats judgments and beliefs interchangeably and it is sometimes the case that a series of judgments constitute the emotion. A problem that remains for the theorist of emotion is accounting for all of the available empirical evidence. Evolutionary theorists believe that all human cultures share several primary emotions, including happiness, contempt, surprise, disgust, anger, fear, and sadness.
Another study examined the relationship between pregaming the act of drinking heavily before a social event and two emotion regulation strategies to understand how these might contribute to alcohol-related problems; results suggested a relationship but a complicated one Pederson, 2016. But, joy includes the appraisals that there is a desirable state and it is present, and relief includes the appraisals that there is an undesirable state and it is absent. Typically, the goal is to explain why emotions are present in humans today by referring to natural selection that occurred some time in the past. Of course, one can make judgments that are not themselves emotions. Generally, love refers to a feeling of strong attraction and emotional attachment. Emotions as judgements of value and importance.
This section closes with a discussion of the ubiquitous nature of facial expressions of emotion and our abilities to recognize those expressions in others. The concern is what intervenes between the perception of a stimulus and the emotion response. The expression of emotions is similar in many countries. This theory defines emotion in terms of one or more dimensions where usually one of them relates to the intensity of emotions. In theory, continuous models allow representing a much broader spectrum of emotions, emotions that are not considered basic and could even represent mixed or overlapping emotions. Often the appraisal is not only quick but it happens without awareness, so I must postulate that the appraisal mechanism is able to operate automatically. With respect to the non-cognitive theories themselves, there are two different approaches.
However, researchers still question the validity of lower brain areas in emotions. Thus, the theory asserts that the physical law that every action results in a reaction also applies to emotion. Everyone familiar with this syndrome may occasionally experience the grief reactions listed below: shock, sobbing, refusing to sob i. Or one person may, as a young woman, be excited to be laid-off from her job, but several years later find being laid-off frightening. ADVERTISEMENTS: Theories of Emotions as Formulated by Different Psychologists are : 1. J: Princeton University Press.
Researchers in anthropology, neuroscience, cognitive and social psychology, and ethology have amassed a large amount of data during the past forty years. Recent evolutionary theories of emotion also consider emotions to be innate responses to stimuli. Thus, the individual now consumes drugs in order to avoid the negative feelings associated with abstinence rather than for pleasure. The Cannon-Bard Theory The physiologist Walter Cannon disagreed with the James-Lange theory, posing three main arguments against it:. New York: Oxford University Press.
The problem with these studies should be evident from our earlier discussion of physiological arousal as a construct. And since emotions are far more powerful than thoughts, fear can overcome even the strongest parts of our intelligence. The amygdala responds like an alarm bell to the body. This is especially true for psychological traits because there is no fossil record to examine. New York: Oxford University Press. This explanation allows Robinson to maintain the idea that emotions are non-cognitive while acknowledging that humans can have emotions in response to complex events. In one sense, emotions are sophisticated and subtle, the epitome of what make us human.