The development of underdevelopment summary. Summary of Development of Underdevelopment 2022-12-07
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The concept of underdevelopment refers to the persistent economic and social disparities that exist between developed and developing countries. These disparities are often the result of a complex interplay of historical, political, and economic factors, and have been a central concern in the field of development economics for many years.
One of the earliest and most influential theories of underdevelopment was proposed by the economist and sociologist Andre Gunder Frank in the 1960s. Frank argued that underdevelopment was not simply a natural outcome of economic processes, but was instead the result of a systematic exploitation of the developing world by the developed world. According to Frank, developed countries had used their economic and political power to extract resources and labor from the developing world, while simultaneously preventing the development of local industries and infrastructure. This process, known as "dependency theory," was seen as a key driver of underdevelopment in the developing world.
Other scholars have pointed to the role of colonialism and imperialism in the development of underdevelopment. During the period of European colonization, many developing countries were subjected to exploitative policies and practices that drained their resources and hindered their economic development. For example, the British Empire used its military and economic power to extract raw materials and cheap labor from its colonies, while simultaneously imposing tariffs and other barriers to trade that prevented the development of local industries. This process of colonial exploitation was seen as a key factor in the development of underdevelopment in many parts of the world.
In recent years, scholars have also focused on the role of global economic policies in the development of underdevelopment. For example, some have argued that the policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank have contributed to underdevelopment by imposing economic liberalization and structural adjustment programs on developing countries. These policies, which are often designed to promote free trade and economic growth, have been criticized for exacerbating inequality and undermining the ability of developing countries to build strong and sustainable economies.
Despite these challenges, there have also been significant efforts to address underdevelopment and promote economic development in the developing world. For example, many international organizations and development agencies have provided financial and technical assistance to help developing countries build the infrastructure, institutions, and human capital needed to support economic growth. In addition, the concept of "sustainable development" has gained increasing attention in recent years, with a focus on finding ways to promote economic growth while also protecting the environment and addressing social and cultural issues.
Overall, the development of underdevelopment is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, shaped by a wide range of historical, political, and economic factors. While there is still much work to be done to address the persistent disparities between developed and developing countries, there are also many efforts underway to promote economic development and improve the lives of people in the developing world.
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The metropolis consisted of progressive countries like those in Europe or the United States, which were both also the centers of capitalism, while satellite countries or those that are undeveloped included countries such as Chile and Brazil. In this opinion, the nations that are underdeveloped today are still in a particular stage which could be viewed as the original stage of history, through which the better-placed countries were and passed many years ago Frank 1972, p. Unequal exchange is not so much a consequence of differences in productivity between countries but by the fact that wages are lower precisely because these countries have been designated by the international division of labour to specialise in the production of commodities. In the text book has divided world economic history in four parts namely: Mercantilism 1500-1770 Industrial Capitalism 1770-1870 Imperialism 1870-1940 Monopoly Capitalism World War II to present The above periods were very important for the understanding of world economic history due to spread of colonization. The second place in quality of life in the world, despite the fact that they face economic problems that however do not deteriorate their quality of life too much. Even though the initial impact of colonial trade was destructive for India, the growth of capitalism would eventually benefit the Indian colony.
. This paper will explain the origin of modernization theory, literature pertaining to the theory, and a case study of an Internet project in Sengerema, alternative perspectives on development in the Third World, as well as conclusions and recommendations. In Europe, the process of primitive accumulation involved the creation of wage labour, which migrated from the rural hinterland to the industrial regions. He had even analyzed the economic crisis in the world which he viewed as the continuation of the structural past. His work helps us to account for the disparities evidenced in the world between the developed and the underdeveloped world as a result of capitalism.
The strategies of economic development among others include Industrialization which incidentally, is the fundamental objective o most developing countries. . . The three worlds The countries of the First World manage to satisfy the needs of their inhabitants. . . The economies in developed countries believe that every culture should be full of progress.
Journal on Andre Gunder Frank’s “The Development of Underdevelopment” Essay Example
The lowest class of people is the tribal people who have different cultures and lifestyles and they find ways to survive on their own. The key factors for the pro-capitalist society is people can succeed and or fail, government allows the economy to proliferate on its own, and most importantly what a person gives to society making a living for themselves is what they are able to take from it profit and consumerism Washburn, pg. Underutilisation of Natural Resources Natural resources are underutilised in underdeveloped economies. The exact definition of capitalism is also not entirely clear and is thus up for interpretation. Indeed, globalization has significantly strengthened ever since. In order to understand the process of underdevelopment, we should not only study the developed metropolitan nations but should as well include those that lag behind in terms of prosperity. .
Large Scale Unemployment Large scale unemployment is another characteristic feature of underdeveloped countries. Similarly, it has been established that the process of economic progression or development takes place in a series of stages. . There are numerous, competing theories that inform the study of development economics. In this case, Frank holds the perspective that countries are structured into a relationship of metropolitan and their satellite counterparts. Technology has been the major driver of globalization.
The new dualism comes after contact and exploitation where the lemon is totally discarded after squeezing it to get dry. The reason for this contrast was that feudalism had already developed forms of private ownership, while the Asiatic societies were principally based upon the communal ownership of land. Moreover, Frank illustrated how Brazil was once a country that experience massive economic development due to its exports but its development was gradually halted when its economy was incorporated into the world capitalist system. As a result economic Bibliography: 1. Some of the theories of dependency model was tried to be imposed in Chile but it was hard to ensure the equitable distribution and capturing the potential surplus was not an easy job. . Backward Techniques of Production Underdeveloped economies use outdated technology for production.
Development and Underdevelopment Summary typemoon.org
In other words, Marx argued that the introduction of capitalism in India was a necessary evil. He denied structural growth models in the sense that they considered underdevelopment as traditional and original. As a result of the unequal distribution of power and resources, some countries have developed at a faster pace than others. Some other culprits for low development include low per capita income, excessive dependency on primary sector and high pressure on natural resources. In general, the African francophone countries along with Haiti are less developed than the European francophone countries.
Europe used its superior military power during the mercantile period to conquer and enslave much of the world then. It was because the structural problem had not been resolved and the temporary solution of the problems through the inappropriate policies had further aggravated the problem, thus paving the way for the next recession. . However, he also noted that Brazil apparently had a chance to further develop its economy through the emergence of Sau Paulo, which was one of its regions, as an industrial powerhouse. Soon they have gained absolute control over the resources of those countries and started to transfer them in Europe. Furthermore, Lipsett requires that studying democracy requires the scholar to look at the conditions that caused democracy to emerge in specific countries.
. . On the side of underdevelopment, he mentioned inadequate food, disease, primitive economic life and poverty. It was established as the United States Tariff Commission in 1916; the current name was adopted in 1974. The present article analyses the processes of industrialisation and economic… Dependency Theory and World Systems Theory People argue that the definition of the word underdeveloped is not clear. Furthermore, Lenin highlighted the crucial importance of the export of capital, the escalation of rivalries between competing monopolies and the territorial division of the world between the major imperialist powers. He lists out the five types of freedom: political freedom, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security Sen 38.