Solomon Asch was a pioneering psychologist who is best known for his work on social conformity and group dynamics. Born in Poland in 1907, Asch received his PhD in psychology from the University of Warsaw in 1932 and later immigrated to the United States, where he spent most of his career as a professor at Swarthmore College in Pennsylvania.
One of Asch's most famous studies, known as the Asch conformity experiments, was conducted in the 1950s and sought to understand the ways in which individuals are influenced by the opinions of others. In these experiments, Asch brought small groups of people into a laboratory and presented them with a series of tasks that required them to make judgments about simple visual stimuli, such as the length of a line. However, the groups were not made up of all true subjects, but rather included a number of confederates who had been instructed to give wrong answers in order to see how the true subjects would react.
The results of these experiments were shocking: even when the confederates gave obviously incorrect answers, a large percentage of the true subjects went along with them and gave incorrect answers as well. Asch's research showed that people are often influenced by the opinions of others, even when those opinions are clearly wrong, and that this tendency to conform is particularly strong when people are in groups.
In addition to his work on conformity, Asch also made significant contributions to the field of social psychology through his research on group dynamics and decision making. He explored the ways in which groups can influence individuals, as well as the ways in which individuals can influence groups. His research on these topics helped to shed light on the complex and often irrational ways in which people make decisions and interact with others in social situations.
Overall, Solomon Asch's contributions to psychology have had a lasting impact on our understanding of social influence and group dynamics. His research has helped to shed light on the ways in which people are influenced by others, and has influenced the way that psychologists and other researchers study these phenomena.
1951 Psychologist Solomon Asch's Famous Experiments :: A Brief History :: Swarthmore College
Once this point is realized, its consequences for the thesis of Hartshorne and May become quite threatening. He is naturally intelligent, but his struggles have made him hard. He wrote, "Why do I sense, together with the current expansion, a shrinking of vision, an expansion of surface rather than depth, a failure of imagination?. He suggested that a person will redefine the object of judgment based on the content of the evaluations. These are: 8 reliability, 9 importance, u physical attractiveness, 12 persistence, 13 seriousness, 14 restraint, 17 strength, 18 honesty. He critiqued the experimental approach of many different psychologists, including Zillig, Moore, Marple, Sherif, Thorndike, and Lorge, in their investigations of evaluation change.
Solomon Asch: One of the Pioneers of Social Psychology
At the time, he revolutionized studies on the human mind. The experiment consisted essentially of forming a group of 7 to 9 students. In the examination of results we shall rely upon the written sketches for evidence of the actual character of the impressions, and we shall supplement these with the quantitative results from the check list. Even when the view is of a mediocre character, it is outspokenly so. More detailed features of the procedure will be described subsequently in connection with the actual experiments. There is a range of qualities, among them a number that are basic, which are not touched by the distinction between "warm" and "cold. American Psychologist, 24, 92-102.
However, if one confederate gave the correct answer while the other confederates answered incorrectly, the participant was much less likely to conform. Thus, the meanings of the words "quick" and "slow" change based on what other words it is presented with or associated with in real life. Although his interests are varied, he is not necessarily well-versed in any of them. He recognized that individuals could influence group behavior, and groups could influence the behavior of individuals. He has perhaps married a wife who would help him in his purpose.
Psychological Monographs, 74 3 , 1—48. Possibly this is a consequence of the thinness of the impression, which responds easily to slight changes. The words "warm" and "cold" were shown to be of more importance in forming participant's impressions than other characteristics. But, people perceive person B as a "problem, whose abilities are hampered by his serious difficulties". Asch ensured that the participants were able to identify the correct answer in each trial. To sum up, is this discipline perhaps on the wrong track? The second view asserts that we form an impression of the entire person. .
Despite these results showing that conformity does happen, there's a catch! It would, however, be an error to deny its importance for the present problem. But the failure to consider the psychological content introduces a serious doubt concerning the conclusions reached by Hartshorne and May. The second and third terms in Sets 1 and 2 below were compared, respectively. Asch concluded "to know a person is to have a grasp of a particular structure". On the other hand, only a minority in Group 2 9 out of 24 report any difficulty. He was awarded his masters degree in 1930, followed by a doctoral degree in 1932.
Series A starts with desirable qualities and ends with undesirable qualities, while the reverse is true for Series B. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. We refer to the famous investigation of Hartshorne and May 3 , who studied in a variety of situations the tendencies in groups of children to act honestly in such widely varied matters as copying, returning of money, correcting one's school work, etc. The following are a few comments of the changing group: You read the list in a different order and thereby caused a different type of person to come to mind. The frequent reference to the unity of the person, or to his "integration," implying that these qualities are also present in the impression, point in this direction.
Solomon Asch Award :: Psychology :: Swarthmore College
Readings about the social animal 1955 : 17-26. Furthermore, they served as the foundations for his experiments. Asch found that only 23% of all his participants refused the group pressures and did not conform during all the trials. Solomon Asch Solomon Asch was a Polish-American social psychologist who is considered a pioneer in social psychology. We have already mentioned that certain synonyms appeared frequently in both series. While at Columbia University, Solomon Asch was advised by Max Wertheimer.
It is doubtful however whether a theory which refuses to admit relational processes in the formation of a whole impression would admit the same relational processes in the interaction of one trait with another. While not entirely conclusive, the results suggest that a full impression of a person cannot remain indifferent to a category as fundamental as the one in question, and that a trend is set up to include it in the impression on the basis of the given data. For these reasons we employ the check-list results primarily for the purpose of comparing group trends under different conditions. The accounts of the subjects suggest that the first terms set up in most subjects a direction which then exerts a continuous effect on the latter terms. Asch rejected this line of thinking in favor of the gestalt principle that people were more than the sum of their parts.
Each participant was then asked which of the lines on the card with three lines matched the target line on the other card. . Some representative statements defending the identity of "stubborn" in the two series follow: Stubbornness to me is the same in any language. Specifically, their main purpose was to prove that people yielded to a group. However, there are more "identical elements" in Set 1 and 2 and in Set 3 and 4. If we assume that the process of mutual influence took place in terms of the actual character of the qualities in question, it is not surprising that some will, by virtue of their content, remain unchanged.