Kubrin and weitzer 2003. Gangstas, Thugs, and Hustlas: Identity and the Code of the Street in Rap Music on JSTOR 2022-12-09
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Kubrin and Weitzer's 2003 article, "Explaining Inner-City Gun Violence: A Test of Differential Association and Social Disorganization Theories," was published in the journal Criminology. The authors set out to examine the relative importance of two sociological theories in explaining gun violence in inner-city neighborhoods: differential association theory and social disorganization theory.
Differential association theory, developed by Edwin Sutherland in the 1940s, posits that people learn criminal behavior through interactions with others who engage in such behavior. According to this theory, the more an individual is exposed to criminal behavior, the more likely they are to engage in it themselves.
Social disorganization theory, on the other hand, suggests that crime and deviance are more likely to occur in neighborhoods that are characterized by a lack of social cohesion and a breakdown of social institutions, such as the family, schools, and religious organizations.
Kubrin and Weitzer used data from the National Youth Survey, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States, to test the validity of these two theories in predicting gun violence in inner-city neighborhoods. The authors found that both differential association and social disorganization were significant predictors of gun violence, but that differential association had a stronger effect. This suggests that exposure to criminal behavior and social ties to deviant peers may be more important in understanding gun violence in inner-city neighborhoods than the broader social and structural factors captured by social disorganization theory.
However, the authors also note that their study has several limitations, including the reliance on self-reported data and the difficulty in disentangling the relative importance of individual-level and contextual factors. Despite these limitations, their findings provide valuable insights into the complex factors that contribute to gun violence in inner-city neighborhoods and highlight the importance of considering both individual-level and contextual factors in understanding and addressing this pressing social issue.
Gangstas, Thugs, and Hustlas: Identity and the Code of the Street in Rap Music on JSTOR
These acts of revenge killing are not just restricted to blood feud cultures. Kubrin, and Jane K. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Legal Implication of the Terrorist Ideologies Revenge has been cited as a factor in one in five murders in developed countries. I co-organized an NSF-funded workshop, Realigning California Corrections: Legacies of the Past, the Great Experiment, and Trajectories for the Future. An act could be labelled as revenge based on how the perceivers make an attribution for the act.
New Directions in Social Disorganization Theory by Charis E. Kubrin, Ronald Weitzer :: SSRN
New York: Oxford University Press. This means that the motivation behind this act of revenge is the suffering of the transgressor rather than any personal benefit of the person who is avenging a wrong doing. Expensive properties would be damaged and destroyed simply because of revenge while such destruction may not be renovated on time. However, it is important to explain here that punishment and revenge are less easily differentiated but are two different things as punishment is defined as a penalty that is charged against a wrong doing Zaibert, 2006. Apart from this, the goals of acts of revenge and punishment are entirely different. Revenge has been known to be deeply associated with terrorist activities as revenge is one of the most important motives behind terrorist activities.
Punishing Immigrants: Policy, Politics, and Injustice. Specifically, there are three intervening trends which have changed the entire face of terrorism such as corporate globalisation, enhanced modes of transportation, and dissemination of information in an inexpensive and easier way. Problems confronting residents of these communities are often resolved informally - without calling the police - and neighborhood cultural codes support this type of problem-solving, even when the "solution" involves a retaliatory killing. Each terrorist activity would have a different and thus a different political, cultural, social or historical background which might or might not be rooted in revenge Aquino et al. According to Elster 1990 , some people consider revenge to be an irrational act that has no place in a civil society. Again, the idea is based on blind revenge which does not distinguish between the innocent and the guilty. Using quantitative data to examine the socioeconomic correlates and ecological distribution of homicide in St.
Retaliatory Homicide: Concentrated Disadvantage and Neighborhood Culture
Keywords: social disorganization, social control, neighborhood crime Suggested Citation:. The key underlying issue is the power of variables to mediate the relationship between exogenous structural conditions and neighborhood crime i. Ousey, and Lesley W. Such a strong historical body of evidence on revenge should indicate to policymakers and researchers that harmful and oppressive actions perpetrated by governments or individuals may encourage revenge as a terrorist act. Stucky, and Marvin D.
[PDF] New Directions in Social Disorganization Theory
This in turn caused wars that have killed many innocent people, who are not responsible for the actions of Osama Bin Laden. Weis, and George S. The state of revenge can occur for all types of acts of lethal vengeance, and revenge can take place among workplace colleagues, friends and family members. Osama Bin Laden regarded these attacks on the WTC as a revenge for the humiliations that dated back to earlier wars. Revenge has been defined as both an act physical and desire emotional. Keywords Legal, Implication, Killing, Revenge, Terrorist, Ideology.
Retaliatory Homicide: Concentrated Disadvantage and Neighborhood Culture on JSTOR
The avengers perceive the revenge to be equal, whereas the transgressors perceive that the revenge is disproportionately severe which brings them to the brink of counter revenging the avengers and thus this cycle continues. The actions of these terrorist groups as well as their terrorist psychologies combined explain the behaviour of the terrorist group Mahmood, 2012. Apart from this, several websites, here especially the social media websites like Facebook provide groups in which victims are given the opportunity to disclose information about their oppressors and wrong doers; an example of such a group is Revenge is Sweet Zaibert, 2006. Researching Theories of Crime and Deviance. The findings thus lend support to a more integrated structural-cultural perspective on violent crime in urban neighborhoods. Kubrin, and Ross L. On balance, however, this reputation promotes more victimization than it prevents based on empirical evidence Decker and Van Winkle, 1996; Stewart, Schreck, and Simons, 2006.
17 Kubrin CE Weitzer R 2003 New Directions in Social Disorganization Theory
Most terrorists are from religious or secular groups and several manipulative leaders consolidate the collective identity of the terrorist group to bring out one motive which might be driven by revenge Nacos, 2012. Oxford: Oxford University Press. This draws the line between revenge and terrorism. In highlighting the direct relationship between revenge and terrorism, researcher provides policymakers with useful information on how to deal with and prevent terrorists. Secondly, motives behind the act of terrorism included revenge.
trivial transgressions eg Kubrin and Weitzer 2003 Under these circum stances
New York: New York University Press. Motives for Revenge A lot of literature in the past has brought about the fact that the act of revenge and its disposition is related to adverse psychological outcomes such as negative effects on living standards, depression and a reduced amount of satisfaction from life McCullough et al. In fact, statistics have stated that revenge killings have taken over ten thousand lives in the past ten 10 years in Albania and Yemen alone White, 2008. It is a form of primitive justice that is usually assumed to be present or expected when there is lack of rules and regulation its implementation Raghaven, 2007. Most recently she received the Fellow of the American Society of Criminology. Professor of Criminology, Law and Society Ph.
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According to Kubrin and Weitzer 2003 , almost 20% of the homicides in the United States have been motivated by revenge. The terrorist organizations train their terrorists to make a preference for the collective group identity above the identity of the individuals themselves. It has become familiar to millions through a diverse publishing program that includes scholarly works in all academic disciplines, bibles, music, school and college textbooks, business books, dictionaries and reference books, and academic journals. This example is quoted as a classic tale of revenge because it involves this additional element associated with revenge, which is the cost of killing her own children that Medea had to pay to avenge her husband and see him suffer Zaibert, 2006. Stucky, Kelly McGeever, and Charis E.