James hutton biography. James Hutton biography 2022-12-08
James hutton biography Rating:
James Hutton was a Scottish geologist, naturalist, and chemical engineer who is considered the "Father of Modern Geology." He was born in 1726 in Edinburgh, Scotland, and received his education at the University of Edinburgh.
Hutton is best known for his contributions to the field of geology, particularly his theory of uniformitarianism. This theory proposes that the processes that shape the Earth's surface today, such as erosion and volcanic activity, have been operating at roughly the same rate for millions of years. This was a major departure from the traditional view that the Earth was only a few thousand years old and had been created through divine intervention.
Hutton's work on uniformitarianism was inspired by his observations of the landscape around him. He studied the layers of rock and soil, and noted that they seemed to have been formed over long periods of time. He also observed the erosion of cliffs and the formation of valleys, and concluded that these processes must have been happening slowly and consistently over time.
In addition to his work on uniformitarianism, Hutton also made important contributions to the fields of chemistry and agriculture. He developed a method for producing sulfuric acid, which was important for the production of fertilizers and other chemicals. He also wrote extensively about the importance of proper agricultural practices, and advocated for the use of crop rotation and other techniques to improve soil fertility.
Hutton's work was not always well received during his lifetime. His ideas about the age of the Earth and the slow, gradual processes that shaped it were at odds with the prevailing scientific and religious beliefs of the time. However, his contributions were eventually recognized and he is now considered one of the pioneers of modern geology.
In conclusion, James Hutton was a groundbreaking scientist and naturalist who made significant contributions to the fields of geology, chemistry, and agriculture. His theory of uniformitarianism revolutionized our understanding of the Earth and its processes, and laid the foundations for modern geology.
Etter Huttons død tok vennen John Playfair, professor i matematikk ved universitetet i Edinburgh, på seg oppgaven å utgi en bearbeida utgave av verket. A key figure in 18th-century science, he has often been called the father of geology, and played a central role in transforming geology into a modern scientific discipline. With James Davie he developed a cheap process for making sal ammoniac ammonium chloride from coal soot, for use in industry. He planned to farm there but decided that first he would make a study of modern farming methods. Edinburgh 5 1805 , 39- 99. William owned a 140 acre farm at Slighhouses and a nearby hill farm of 590 acres named Nether Monynut. Personal Life While studying medicine at the University of Edinburgh, Hutton fathered an illegitimate son with a woman who lived in the area.
Here he began to study Geological Studies Hutton did not have a degree in geology, but his experiences on the farm gave him the focus to form theories about the formation of the Earth that were novel at the time. Was known as a prankster some mean-spirited and troublemaker who admitted to "delighting in deflating the egos of higher-ups. Cambridge Library Collection - Earth Science Автор John Playfair Издание: иллюстрированное, перепечатанное, переиздание Издатель Cambridge University Press, 2011 ISBN 110807250X, 9781108072502 Количество страниц Всего страниц: 70 Экспорт цитаты BiBTeX EndNote RefMan. The author recounts Hutton's academic career, speculates on the motivation behind his foray into farming and includes a detailed discussion of his main geological theories. Mot slutten av livet satte han seg fore å systematisere sine tallrike skrifter om landbruksspørsmål, som han planla å gi ut under tittelen Elements of Agriculture. The house in which Hutton lived in Edinburgh now became his laboratory as well as his home and he continued to pursue his theories of the history of the Earth.
Hutton also extended his idea of uniformitarianism to living organisms. En tredje utgave forelå ifølge Huttons biograf John Playfair i manuskript da han døde. The age of the Earth was a topic which, certainly in Europe at that time, was highly religious in nature. Who was James Hutton? Hutton was well enough to deliver the second of his lectures four weeks later on 4 April. His first bout with this illness was in 1791 and was cured by operation, but it returned more severely in 1794, confining Hutton to his home.
Hutton supported his theory with observations of particular rock formations. As a scientist, his most important contributions were to geology, the study of Earth, the materials it is composed of, and how it changes over time. Soon, however, Hutton decided that practicing medicine was not for him. Legacy In 1830, geologist and called them Uniformitarianism, which became a cornerstone of modern geology. However before he could begin his second year of studies the 1745 rebellion had broken out and his former lecturer 1746. Britannica does not review the converted text. Så snart de heva bergartene er kommet over havnivå, begynner nedbrytinga, som fortsetter like til alt land er jevna ut til havnivå eller ny heving finner sted.
He was told he had no more than six months to live. . It wasn't until 1975 that he experienced a career comeback with the cult detective series - IMDb Mini Biography By: Family 4 Spouse Lynni M Solomon Maryline Poole December 1958 - Children Parents Thomas Radcliffe Hutton Helen Mae Scottebo Relatives Trade Mark 3 Going to the doctor with respiratory trouble and back pain, he was diagnosed with liver cancer which had spread to his lungs. It may have been that Hutton never intended to practise medicine as a career, or he may have decided to avoid Edinburgh for a while since that was where his illegitimate son was living. From his father, Hutton inherited a farm called Slighhouses, located in Berwickshire in southeastern Scotland. He was working on a follow-up to the book when he died. Educated at Edinburgh University, Hutton then travelled to Europe to study medicine before going into industry.
After submitting a thesis entitled De sanguine et circulatione in microcosmo to the University of Leiden he graduated with his medical degree in September 1749. Herfra er de nydanna bergartene blitt løfta opp av energien fra jordas varme indre, og under denne prosessen er lagene blitt skråstilt, samtidig som masser av smelta stein er trengt opp gjennom dem. I 1805 kom Playfairs biografi over James Hutton. Other Contributions to Science Hutton's scientific accomplishments extended beyond geology. They were published in 1788, and two volumes of his Theory of the Earth came out in 1795. Hutton's ideas drew much criticism from most geologists of his time, who followed a more religious line in their findings. There are two reasons.
The most important of his friends were Joseph Black who discovered carbon dioxide, James Watt who made the first practical steam engine, and Adam Smith the economist. Rocks, soil, and continents erode down to sediments, which are then carried to the sea, and are afterward uplifted again by processes including volcanic activity. Hutton disagreed and was mocked for his anti-Biblical account of the Earth's formation. However he did not see any mechanism which would allow him to give even an estimate for this age. This volume, first published in 1805, is a detailed and affectionate chronicle of Hutton's life by his close friend, geologist and mathematician John Playfair.
In 1750 he returned to Edinburgh and resumed chemical experiments with friend James Davie. His great liveliness, added to the aptness to lose sight of himself, would sometimes lead him into little eccentricities, that formed an amusing contrast with the graver habits of philosophic life. Hutton noted that because of this great slowness and length of time, it would not be possible in a human lifetime to directly observe a geological event like the uplift of a continent, and that from a human perspective, it could thus easily look like ''this world has neither a beginning nor an end''. In the summer of 1754 Hutton moved to Slighhouses where he began farming. It was the beginning of a period spanning thirteen years during which he made some trips to Edinburgh but spent most of his time farming and working on his theories of geology.
The Bible was taken as literal truth, despite the acceptance by most that the Earth revolved around the sun. Theory of the Earth inneholdt også en Theory of Rain, som ble framlagt for Royal Society i 1784. His son, James Smeaton Hutton was a post-office clerk in London and had five children. One also has to add that, even before the severe health problems, Hutton always seemed much more successful in convincing his fellow scientists when he spoke to them than when he wrote. Hutton, deciding to take the training which involved the most chemistry, returned to the University of Edinburgh in November 1744 to undertake medical studies. A portrait of James Hutton by Sir Henry Raeburn, painted in 1776 Early Life and Education James Hutton was born on June 3, 1726, in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Biography of James Hutton, Founder of Modern Geology
This went against the main geological view of the time, which held that rocks and other earthly features were mostly unchanging and had been created in a great flood. It is apparent, that while his father gave him occasional financial assistance, he had very little to do with him. Before he had started his medical studies, Hutton and a partner had become interested in sal ammoniac, or ammonium chloride, a chemical used in making medicines as well as fertilizers and dyes. There he studied Latin, Greek and mathematics, and in November 1740, at the age of fourteen, he entered the University of Edinburgh. The science of geology Hutton moved to Slighhouses, a lowland family farm, in the 1750s.