Historical theory is a field of study that encompasses a wide range of ideas and approaches to understanding the past. At its core, historical theory is concerned with how we interpret and make sense of the events, people, and societies that have shaped the world we live in today.
One of the foundational ideas of historical theory is that history is not simply a record of what happened in the past, but rather a constructed narrative that reflects the perspectives and biases of the people who are telling the story. This means that history is not objective, but rather subjective and open to interpretation.
One of the most influential historical theories is that of Marxist historiography, which emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries. Marxist historiography emphasizes the role of economic and class struggles in shaping the course of history. According to this theory, history is driven by the conflict between different social classes, with the dominant class shaping the narrative of the past in a way that reinforces its own power and legitimacy.
Another important historical theory is that of social constructivism, which suggests that historical events and phenomena are shaped by the cultural, social, and political context in which they occur. This theory emphasizes the role of human agency and cultural practices in shaping the course of history, and suggests that historical events cannot be understood in isolation from the social and cultural context in which they took place.
Other notable historical theories include feminism, which focuses on the role of gender in shaping the course of history, and postcolonialism, which examines the impact of colonialism and imperialism on the global historical narrative.
Ultimately, historical theory is a diverse and complex field that encompasses a wide range of ideas and approaches to understanding the past. By examining and interpreting the events, people, and societies of the past through a variety of different lenses, historians are able to gain a deeper understanding of the world we live in today and the forces that have shaped it.
This idea of social creation based on class conflict, economic repression, and the series of epochs creates the overarching theory of Marxism. Such a class division would of course be possible only on the basis of the minority of exploiters being in control of social production, primarily through their monopoly of ownership of Karl Marx's Impact Of The Industrial Revolution And Feudalism 889 Words 4 Pages Karl Marx, one could go so far as to say, was the prophet of his own age. If this seems to contrast with what proponents of historicism argue for, in terms of contextually relative interpretation, this happens, according to Popper, only because such proponents are unaware of the type of causality they ascribe to history. For want of a rider the message was lost. The second point of concern on the historical materialism theorys ability to explain social change is the lack of information on the alteration of productive relations. He explained that he had sported the umbrella as a criticism against patriarch Joseph Kennedy who had supported British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. He asserts that individuals need to organize themselves and create some sort of order to survive.
Theory of Historical Materialism by Karl Marx Essay Sample
Later on, the individual can externalize this understanding in order to do a new activity. The shift to postcolonial perspectives started in the years following decolonization across much of the world, influencing the question of experiences and interpretations of imperialism. Instead, subjects or individuals negotiate how they do and which activities they will do. Popper wrote with reference to In The Open Society and Its Enemies, Popper attacks "historicism" and its proponents, among whom as well as Hegel he identifies and singles out Another of his targets is what he terms "moral historicism", the attempt to infer moral values from the course of history; in Hegel's words, that "history is the world's court of justice". This means that Leontiev's activity theory consists of an activity driven by an object-related motive, actions that are goal-oriented and contribute to the activity as a whole, and finally operations, which are automatic and determined by the conditions under which the activity is undertaken McAvinia, 2016. However, notwithstanding with the other prophets, he was mostly concerned with material aspects of human life. DIRKS Review of How to Be a Historian: Scholarly Personae in Historical Studies, 1800—2000.
Robert Finlay's American Historical Review essay and Davis's response AHR 93:3, June 1988, 553-71; 572-603 help students understand the peer review and criticism that marks all historical debate. The content and unsolved problems of activity theory. . In Activity Theory, human activities are the unit for analysis Kaptelinin and Nardi, 2006 , and the intentional use of tools or artifacts by people to accomplish tasks are the focus of study. Random One popular idea today is that history is random — that the interaction of billions of humans and their choices with all the other natural factors in the world creates history with no discernible flow or path.
Economic factors are of great importance for the overall philosophy of Karl Marx and, particularly, for the theory of historical materialism. Common types of organizational leadership theory include trait, behavioral, and participative theories, though a great many other theories can exist. Unlike historicists before them, they don't see history as just background information for the text; rather they see it as a key piece of information that the literature is conveying. These contradictions can be one reason why the outcome is not the one anticipated or desired McAvinia, 2016. Cowley 1928 In 1948, after years of experiments and studies, researcher Ralph Stogdill determined that leadership exists between persons in a social situation, and that persons who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations Stogdill, 1948. Fiedler Model Fiedler concluded that task-oriented leaders tended to perform better when situations were very favorable or very unfavorable to them.
Engestrom and Miettinen 1999 , who traced the development of Activity Theory following the Second World War, say that it was used in child psychology and studies of language acquisition as well as in the study of instruction. We would need to identify more clearly not just how historical work is conducted but the ways prevailing debates over historical meaning and method have come to have specific names attached to them. They are involved in present conditions, in the world and its work and progress. Behavioral theories of leadership suggest that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders. Journal of Contemporary Business.
Regardless, the first sighting was in 1889 by Captain James Kerr and a steamboat full of passengers, but since, there have been approximately 109 sightings of the beast. Who created leadership theory? In this case, the seeds physically change in a different object as they grow. Readings on the development of children, 23 3 , 34-41. Some of these heroes were mythological, like Odysseus, descendant of the gods and hero of the Trojan War, and others, like Alexander the Great and Hannibal Barca, earned their distinction in battles won against nearly insurmountable odds, immortalized in stories retold over generations. Beyond the interface: Encountering artifacts in use.
Cultural psychology: some general principles and a concrete example. In other words, whenever the means of production and the relations of production come into conflict, there is a revolution that alters the economic foundations of society causing the entire superstructure to be transformed. Since then, many of his devoted fans have claimed to have seen the rapper in Cuba and South Africa. On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History by Thomas Carlyle London: Chapman and Hall, 1840 p. Most versions tell either of how Arthur became king when the Lady of the Lake gave him a sword called Excalibur, or of how he was the only one capable of pulling the sword from a stone.
Is nature or nurture the more important factor in determining leadership? In other words, bright individuals perform worse in stressful situations, and experienced people perform worse in low-stress situations. Those that described their least favorite coworker unfavorably were deemed to be more task oriented. Each school develops from changes in historical trends, understanding, and history itself. The least preferred coworker asked leaders to react to sixteen sets of contrasting adjectives that would describe their least preferred coworker. Another example is the abolition of slavery in the US. As indicated by the book's subtitle, the authors stress the necessity of approaching the Anthropocene from a multidisciplinary perspective as opposed to an interdisciplinary one. Bigfoot Warning Bigfoot Area.