As a consequence of this and Hemingway's own frequent references to the idea, the theory has been invoked to account for a variety of "things left out"? The metaphor of an iceberg that Hemingway chose for his theory serves as well to suggest that the dignity of a visible talent depends on the submerged tradition beneath it. Somehow Hemingway did feel ob- liged to some exalted notion of his art to parody the declining work of the friend whose letters and advice had introduced him to Paris. When his prose reflects their ideas, when it turns to consider theory, his syntax stumbles. . Ezra Pound's critical manifestoes and Hemingway's remark that the poet convinced him to "distrust adjectives" AMF, 134 , for example, seem to justify Harold Hurwitz's conclusion that Pound's influence is most apparent in the novelist's early work which he helped to make tighter and sharper.
When Hemingway rewrote the conclusion he returned to the point in the narrative at which Nick had hooked and landed "one good trout" SS, 228 , the precise center of the conclusion's narrative structure. However, maintaining the elephant was expensive and was sure to ruin the recipient, or at least become a burden Bullen 750. This content downloaded from 129. There may be clinical reasons for this almost wholescale cancellation of his real or imagined literary indebtedness, but the momentary impati- ence in that letter to Fitzgerald in 1925 suggests another sort of explana? Although Nick had felt that he had left those needs behind, in the original conclusion he returns to them with the almost obsessive recol? The couple has an indirect debate about the white elephant in the room; to the girl, the baby is a gift. One could argue that the dis? This kind of semantic may be called 'presentational symbolism,' to characterize its essential distinction from discursive symbolism, or 'language' proper" 97. What distinguishes "Big Two-Hearted River" from all the others is that it is self-reflexive, the first ofthe Nick Adams stories written about a writer and his past and future writing. His best-known works include The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls, and The Old Man and the Sea.
This content downloaded from 129. Anything you can omit that you know you still have in the writing and its quality will show. I left out all Chicago, which is hard to do in 2951 words. So I didn't put in the hanging. In the manuscript of 1924, Nick thinks that he knows "how Cezanne would paint this stretch of river," and that Gertrude Stein would know "if he ever got it right" NAS, 239-40. Their look was described as being androgynous or even boyish because of the slender figure and traits as smoking were seen as being masculine.
In this way, femininity is linked to women while masculinity is linked to men, but recent studies and researches tried to change these views and educate the people to avoid thinking anymore in binaries. This content downloaded from 129. Finally, that theory of omission is, it seems, only a corollary of the more interesting one he discovered during the writing of "Big Two-Hearted River. Nick's decision to act in tacit obedi- ence to what he has discovered in these events is a metaphor for Hemingway's decision to delete his earlier material in obedience to l6The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway Scribner's, 1938 , p. What is considered feminine in one country, may be very masculine in another and vice versa. It was to be a preface to a school text of a selection of his short stories. We were told that Hemingway always wrote slowly and revised carefully, cutting, eliding, substituting, and experimenting with syntax to see what a sentence could most economically carry, and then throwing out all that could be spared.
But his sense of the term also seems close to the rhetorical concept of invention as the discovery of a structure, strategy, or argument appropriate to a writer's subject and purpose. Structure There were two good reasons, one obvious and one less so, for Hemingway's decision to replace the original conclusion of "Big Two-Hearted River" in September or November of 1924. The story is talking about a failing relationship between an American man and his girlfriend. This theory is best described as the omission of unnecessary, superlative language. Donald Gallup Knopf, 1953 , p. There are three tries at an introduction and three at a conclusion. They talk of the weather, George offers Nick a "shot" of the "real stuff," and Nick remarks that there's "not a thing" in the paper; then two men enter.
Stein's comment and his own recognition that discrete sentences, however true and simple, were "far from enough" would have confirmed the need to recast his conclusion and give it some "dimension," like those in the landscapes of Cezanne. The noon sun has driven the trout into places he is not yet ready to fish. Some thirty years later he remembered that winter of 1925 as "the end of the first part of Paris,"2 and this letter to Fitzgerald, with its note of willingness to be taught even though the prospects for originality seem slight, reflects the sense that something had come to an end at a moment when little new was in the off ing. The revisions seem to demonstrate precisely what Hemingway later said he wanted to describe in his fiction: "the sequence of motion and fact which made the emotion" DIA, 2. He claims he wants to the girl to do what she wants, but is clearly oversimplifying the matter. The commentary on the original conclusion of this story in Baker's biography in 1968 and its publication in 1972 italicized his other remarks on Cezanne from the letter to Gertrude Stein in 192420 through Lillian Ross's New Yorker "Profile" and the early chapters of A Moveable Feast in the 1950s. Indiana University Press was founded in 1950 and is today recognized internationally as a leading academic publisher specializing in the humanities and social sciences.
Hemingway's refusal to rediscover what struck him as obvious and universal in the work of his contemporaries may write off some part of his recent literary education; but with it he implies that there are fundamental principles still to be discovered, and perhaps in his own fiction. It means that some expression or phrase is not clear enough, it has many meanings and possible interpretations. However one reads the metaphorical dimensions of that morning's fishing, its pattern or structure is clear: two sets of opposed scenes balanced on either side of one that is implied by the first set and that in turn implies the second. This content downloaded from 129. Due to being unable to live comfortably and being in debt, Mr. A cold mist was coming up through the woods from the bay. You throw it all away and invent from what you know" "AOSS," 5.
. But most of his literary friends in Paris in the 1920s, like Ezra Pound, would have seen it as a version of the commonplace that the structures of literature, like the sentences of the language, imply more than they state and make us feel more than we know. As an academic press, our mandate is to serve the world of scholarship and culture as a professional, not-for-profit publisher. In September of that year he had not only the achievement of the ln Our Time stories to work from, but the first draft of The Sun Also Rises waiting for revision. It began almost as an afterthought in the letter to Fitzgerald of 1925. Of all these versions, the most interesting are the manuscripts and frag? At two points in the interview Hemingway responded with a version of the theory of omission.
In popular culture, there have been some serious issues with the proclaiming of Barbie as being the icon of femininity by Mattel in the United States which started a series of controversies around the world especially in China, Iran and Saudi Arabia. The passage invites speculation about its immediate rhetorical motive and effect, its reliability as evidence of what Heming? Lantin has no other choice but to sell his wife 's jewelry. As much as anything he ever wrote, it contemplates the theory of his fic? Now it is not the omission itself that matters, but the quality and quantity of what is omitted, so that the "test of any story is how very good the stuff is that you. As he watched a big trout shot upstream in a long angle burst through the surface of the water and then seemed to float-dewR back down stream with the current to its post under the bridge. Reviewing Hemingway's statements of the theory of omission in their different contexts suggests that a rather commonplace idea was used on various occasions to serve various ends, until it became for him the theory of his fiction. He felt ali the old thrill. For Hemingway, who was not all that well prepared, the exami? So with the opportunity to revise his theory and with the enticement of Plimpton's interview in a journal bearing the name of the city of his apprenticeship, Hemingway began to think of his theory of omission as less descriptive than prescriptive, and not only as an alternative way of writing he had learned as a young writer, but also as an essential lesson he would teach as an older one.