Govt of india act 1935. Government of India Act, 1935 2022-12-23
Govt of india act 1935
The Government of India Act 1935 was a major reform of the administrative and constitutional structure of British India. It was passed by the British Parliament in 1935 and came into effect in 1937, after being delayed by the outbreak of World War II. The Act was the longest and most detailed of all the constitutional acts passed by the British Parliament for the governance of India. It was also the last major constitutional reform before India gained independence in 1947.
The Act was intended to provide a new constitutional framework for India that would give greater autonomy to the provinces and reduce the central government's control over them. It also introduced a system of government that was based on a federal structure, with a weak central government and strong provincial governments.
One of the major provisions of the Act was the establishment of a bicameral central legislature, consisting of the Council of States and the Federal Assembly. The Council of States was composed of 260 members, with representation from the provinces, the princely states, and the British Indian territories. The Federal Assembly was composed of 375 elected members and 125 nominated members, with representation based on population.
The Act also introduced a system of dyarchy, which divided the powers and responsibilities of the provinces between the governor and the ministers. The governor was appointed by the British Crown and had the power to veto legislation passed by the provincial legislature. The ministers, on the other hand, were responsible for the administration of the provinces and were elected by the provincial legislature.
In addition to these changes, the Act also introduced a number of other reforms, including the establishment of a public service commission, the introduction of separate electorates for Muslims, the establishment of a federal court, and the introduction of a system of indirect elections for the selection of the members of the federal legislature.
Overall, the Government of India Act 1935 was a significant step towards the decentralization of the Indian administration and the devolution of power to the provinces. It also laid the foundations for the development of a federal system of government in India, which was eventually realized after independence in 1947.
Government of India Act, 1935
Except for the National Liberal Federation, most political parties in Indiatook a negative view of the Act. Sapru replied that they should stand fast on the Act and the federal plan embodied in it. Remarks The Government of IndiaAct was passed by the British parliament in 1935 and came into effect in 1937. However, the Liberals and even elements in the Congress were tepidly willing to give it a go: "Linlithgow asked Sapru whether he thought there was a satisfactory alternative to the scheme of the 1935 Act. This destroyed the morale of the bureaucracy. Though the provinces could act as an independent authority within their acquired areas, the centre had a ruling authority over them.
File:Government of India Act typemoon.org
In all likelihood, these representatives would be largely Congressmen. A particular frustration for Indian politicians was that even for those areas over which they had gained nominal control, the "purse strings" were still in the hands of British officialdom. To substitute direct for indirect election Indian council minimum members 8, Maximum 12. The Kenyan political system, introduced under the 2010 Constitution has paved way for a complex web of checks and balances between newly created branches of government. So that the flaws that were there in the Act of 1919 could be corrected.
Government of India Act 1935: Features, Analysis & More for UPSC!
You too will realize this. All other subjects were transferred. If the Viceroy fails, nothing can save the system you have set up". But is not every power here vested in the King? Henceforth, they derived their legal authority directly from the British crown. After which, a lot of discussions took place which also led to the Rowlatt Act in the same year.
Constitution of India
Legislature, there shall be freedom of speech in the Legislature, and no member of the Legislature shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in the Legislature or any committee thereof , and no person shall be so liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in the Legislature or any committee thereof, and no person shall be so liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of either Chamber of the Legislature of any report, paper, votes or proceedings. He retained discretionary powers wrt minorities, civil services, tribal areas, princely states, etc. Members of either Chamber shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as may from time to time be determined by Act of the Federal Legislature and, until provision in that respect is so made, allowances at such rates and upon such conditions as were immediately before the date of the establishment of the Federation applicable in the case of members of the Legislative Assembly of the Indian Legislature. It served as a milestone and paved the way for a responsible form of government in India. In this article, Saksham of UPES discuss the features of Government of India Act, 1935. The East India Company came by with a special right to trade in India, which was granted to the company by Queen Elizabeth I. The Council of States was the upper house with directly elected members from the provinces and members nominated by the princes in a ratio of 60:40.
(PDF) Government of India Act 1935
A typical response was: ' After all, there are five aspects of every Government worth the name: a The right of external and internal defence and all measures for that purpose; b The right to control our external relations; c The right to control our currency and exchange; d The right to control our fiscal policy; e the day-to-day administration of the land…. He thought that Congress was moving towards the acceptance of the Federation. Country is called bharatmata for worshiping as well as for milking. The Art of the Possible. It paved the way for the Independence of India and the formation of the constitution thereafter. Had the Federation been established, the election of states' representatives in the Federal Legislature would amount to a Congress coup from the inside.
Government of India Act of 1935
Gandhi was not over-worried, said Birla, by the reservation of defence and external affairs to the centre, but was concentrating on the method of choosing the States' representatives. In September 1939, Linlithgow simply declared that India was at war with Germany. ½ of them with work ex of 10 years in public service. However, this was not a realistic possibility see e. In other words, the Governor was required to act with the advice of the ministers who are in turn responsible to the provincial legislature.
Difference Between Govt Of Indian Act 1919 And 1935 [jlk9pzqvg845]
It was a permanent body like the present-day Rajya Sabha with one-third of members retiring every five years. Most people seemed to expect them to develop representative institutions. In the United Kingdom, both departments are subject to the same legislative control, whereas in India one is responsible to the federal legislature and the other to the Imperial Parliament". The act was implemented and formed from the sources like the Simon Commission Report, the three roundtable conferences etc. The Princely States represented about a quarter of the population of India and produced well under a quarter of its wealth. For example, the act forbids.
Modern History Simplified: Government of India Act of 1935
These subjects included defence, ecclesiastical affairs church-related , external affairs, press, police, taxation, justice, power resources and tribal affairs. The legislature could also remove the ministers. Some were to be nominated by the Governor-General. They were freed from the directions and control of the Governor-General and the Secretary of State of India. However, this province never materialised due to a lack of support from many princely states. The Government Act of 1919 was based on Mont-Ford Report that was supposedly made after taking into consideration the concerns of all the sections of polity.
Government of India Act 1935
From 1939, Linlithgow concentrated on supporting the war effort. The authority of Federal Railways lay under the Governor General of India and was not answerable to any other power. The Act provided a dual form of government a "diarchy" for the major provinces. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1919 AND 1935 The Government of India Act, 1919 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It worked great for women as they got a separate electorate and hence a major role in the decision-making powers.
Government Of India Act 1935
The main purpose of imposing dyarchy was to bring stability and efficiency at the center. It was based on a report by a Joint Select Committee, led by Lord Linlithgow, set up the two houses of the British parliament. When the Simon Commission Report came out it was seen that the report was not satisfactory which would lead to the consultation with the then Indian Community Representatives at the Round Table conference, held in London. The Government Act 1935 was based on the reports of Simon Commission, 3rd Round Table Conference and the White Paper of 1933. Each part wasfurther divided into chapters. The All India Federation was meant to consist of British India and the princely states. It was to be composed of 260 members of which 156 were to be representatives of British India while 101 of the Indian states.