Friction loss in pipe experiment discussion. Experiment 1_Friction loss along a pipe lab report. typemoon.org 2022-12-13

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Friction loss in pipes is a phenomenon that occurs when a fluid (such as water or air) flows through a pipe and encounters resistance, causing a decrease in pressure and velocity. This phenomenon can have significant impacts on the design and operation of piping systems in a variety of industries, including water treatment, agriculture, and manufacturing.

One way to study and understand friction loss in pipes is through experimentation. In a friction loss experiment, a fluid is flowed through a pipe under controlled conditions, and the pressure and velocity of the fluid are measured at various points along the pipe. By analyzing these measurements, researchers can determine the amount of friction loss that occurs in the pipe and understand how it is affected by factors such as the size and shape of the pipe, the type of fluid being flowed, and the flow rate of the fluid.

There are several factors that can affect the results of a friction loss experiment. For example, the roughness of the interior surface of the pipe can increase friction loss, as the fluid must work harder to flow around rough or irregular surfaces. The size of the pipe is also important, as smaller pipes tend to have higher levels of friction loss due to the increased surface area of the pipe walls relative to the volume of the fluid being flowed. The type of fluid being flowed can also affect friction loss, as some fluids are more viscous and create more resistance as they flow through the pipe.

One way to account for these factors is to use a formula known as the Darcy-Weisbach equation, which is commonly used to calculate the friction loss in pipes. This equation takes into account the size of the pipe, the roughness of the pipe walls, the flow rate of the fluid, and the fluid's viscosity to determine the amount of friction loss that occurs.

In conclusion, friction loss in pipes is an important phenomenon that can have significant impacts on the design and operation of piping systems. Experiments can be conducted to understand and measure friction loss, and the results of these experiments can be used to optimize the design and operation of piping systems to minimize friction loss and improve efficiency.

Pipe Friction Loss Calculations

There were a lot of sources of errors in this experiment such as systematic errors, human errors, equipment limitations and some other factors that were not taken into consideration during analysis of the data. Although the trends were predicted effectively, more research could be done on how accurate Darcy-Weisbach is in predicting the exact pressure drop turbulent as it was unclear exactly how much the assumptions and errors affected the results, so future experiments with different parameters could be carried out in order to further prove the validity and accuracy of this equation, particularly in turbulent flow. Generally the results obtain from the experiment do agree with the theoretical prediction and the discrepancy of the points as shown in the moody chart was relatively small. Pipe 1 and 3 have similar friction factors at the same Reynolds numbers and with relatively low friction factors which provides evidence that they were relatively smooth and so conformed to the assumptions of the experiment more accordingly. External flows past objects have been studied extensively because of their many practical applications. Thus, an accurate K value for all fittings and valves in a pipe system is necessary to predict the actual head loss across the pipe system. From Equation 5 , note that will be negative for the enlargement.

Experiment 1_Friction loss along a pipe lab report. typemoon.org

In fully turbulent flows, f depends on both the Reynolds number and relative roughness of the pipe wall. As the flow rate, Q was changed, the values for the inlet and outlet, H1 and H2 were measured. A set of two water-over-mercury manometers is used to measure large pressure differentials, and two water manometers are used to measure small pressure differentials. The following steps should be followed. Record your calculations in the following sample Result Tables. Report Use the template provided to prepare your lab report for this experiment.

Okiishi, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 5th Ed. C Lab Manual University Teknologi Malaysia. Different liquids have different forces: the larger the intermolecular force, the more viscous it is and vice versa. In the laminar flow and turbulent flow region where the frictional factor values are similar to the values in the moody chart. The density and Introduction Theory and Principles In this experiment, the theory and principles in used is the loss of energy and total head of fluid due to frictional resistance of real or viscous fluid. The Darcy-Weisbach equation is the most widely accepted formula for determining the energy loss in pipe flow. Obtain data for ten flow rates.

This resistance is termed pipe friction and is usually measured in feet or metres head of the fluid, which is why it is also refered to as the head loss due to pipe friction. Munira Mohammad Date of Survey : 16 th April 2019 Date Submitted : 6 th May 2019 Page 2 Introduction This experiment was conducted to measure the head loss in the pipe due to friction between the fluid and the wall of the pipe. This value will be negative for the contraction since and it will be positive for enlargement because. Fig 6 â€” Reynolds number against friction factor of pipe 1 Fig 7 â€” Reynolds number against friction factor of pipe 2 Fig 8 â€” Reynolds number against friction factor of pipe 3 From these graphs it can clearly be seen that at the same Reynolds numbers, pipe 2 has a much greater friction factor than the other pipes which provides further evidence that pipe 2 has a much greater roughness which is why all the experimental data has deviated so much in pipe 2 since it was assumed to be smooth. Knowing the parameters that affect pressure drop would be extremely useful in industry as it would enable the pressure drop to be easily controlled and adjusted to whatever is most desirable for a process. Darcy Weisbach is the equation that is under scrutiny in this experiment and the to derive the equation one possible approach is to consider a force balance on a section of a fluid in a pipe as seen by the diagram of a circular pipe below. For high flow rate experiments, the inlet pipe is connected directly to the bench water supply.

In this experiment, h L is measured directly by the water manometers and the differential pressure gauge that are connected by pressure tappings to the test pipe. This itself has widened the use of the Darcy-Weisbach formula to the point that most other equations are no longer used. This, together with Figure 3. For turbulent flow in a smooth pipe, a well-known curve fit to the Moody diagram is given by: Reynolds number is given by: where v is the average velocity, D is the pipe diameter, and and are dynamic and kinematic viscosities of the fluid, respectively. This means that energy consumption, to overcome the frictional resistance in a pipe conveying a certain flow rate, can be significantly reduced at a relatively small capital cost. Find Out How UKEssays.

The head loss due to friction may be incurred by fluid when fluid experiences bends, valves, sudden expansion as well as sudden contraction at fitting. Reynolds number was used to understand the variation of the flow between the laminar and the turbulent flows. Instead of using the Moody diagram, f can be determined by utilizing empirical formulas. Raw Data Tables Part A â€” Head Loss Across Pipe Fittings Test No. To conclude, we chiefly studied the head losses in the pipes as along pipes of different diameters and roughness.

As the Laminar flow f can be known by analysis while the turbulent flow f is found experimentally. Valves and fittings on a pipe also contribute to the overall head loss that occurs, however these must be calculated separately to the pipe wall friction loss, using a method of Darcy Weisbach Formula The Darcy formula or the Darcy-Weisbach equation as it tends to be referred to, is now accepted as the most accurate pipe friction loss formula, and although more difficult to calculate and use than other friction loss formula, with the introduction of computers, it has now become the standard equation for hydraulic engineers. For example, airfoils are made into streamline shapes in order to increase the lifts, and at the same time, reducing the aerodynamic drags exerted on the wings. Some of the steps are to make the flow rate of the water source consistent and remove the bubble from the tubes in the measurements. The equation was found to be very accurate at predicting pressure drop in laminar flow but not as much in turbulent with pressure drops in laminar having a much lower percentage difference, however this may be due to assumptions made such as assuming all the pipes were smooth, roughness is irrelevant for the friction factor in laminar flow and thus irrelevant for those pressure drops whereas the results in turbulent flow and especially for a particular pipe in the experiment show pressure drop in turbulent flow is very likely to depend on roughness of the pipe.

There is a positive linear relationship between the Reynolds Number and the head loss coefficient. But the friction loss is connected to the flow of liquid through a pipe. Department of Energy, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow. This was done by comparing how close the experimental data was to the theoretical data calculated by this equation. K values assist engineers in totaling all of the minor losses by multiplying the sum of the K values by the velocity head to quickly determine the total head loss due to all fittings. Friction factor therefore must be causing the differences and so pipe 2 must have been rougher than pipe 1 and pipe 3 to cause such a deviation from the theoretical data so the assumptions all pipes were smooth was wrong. This is most likely to do with pipe 3 having the smallest diameter as all other factors about this pipes regarding the assumptions were kept the same, this shows that the pressure drop is inversely proportional to the diameter and this was actually predicted by the Darcy-Weisbach equation and so the experimental results provide evidence for the validity of the equation for its relationship between pressure and diameter.