Effects of the structural adjustment program. What are the effects of structural adjustment? 2023-01-06

Effects of the structural adjustment program Rating: 9,1/10 1814 reviews

Writing a thesis paper can be a daunting task, especially if you have never written one before. However, with a clear understanding of the steps involved and a little bit of planning, you can successfully write a thesis paper that is both informative and well-written. Here is a step-by-step guide on how to write a thesis paper:

  1. Choose a topic: The first step in writing a thesis paper is to choose a topic that is both interesting and relevant to your field of study. It should be something that you are passionate about and that you have a good understanding of.

  2. Develop a thesis statement: Once you have chosen your topic, it is time to develop a thesis statement. This is a one-sentence summary of the main point of your paper. It should be clear and concise, and it should accurately reflect the focus of your paper.

  3. Conduct research: The next step is to conduct research on your topic. This may involve reading articles, books, and other sources of information. Make sure to take thorough notes and record the sources of your information so that you can properly cite them in your paper.

  4. Create an outline: An outline is a roadmap for your paper that helps you organize your thoughts and ideas. Start by creating an outline that includes the main points you want to cover in your paper. Then, break these points down into smaller subpoints and arrange them in a logical order.

  5. Write your paper: Now it is time to start writing your paper. Begin by introducing your topic and explaining the purpose of your paper. Then, present your main points, using evidence and examples to support your arguments. Be sure to include in-text citations whenever you quote or paraphrase a source.

  6. Edit and revise: After you have finished writing your paper, it is important to spend some time editing and revising. This may involve checking for grammar and spelling mistakes, rephrasing awkward sentences, and ensuring that your paper flows logically and cohesively.

  7. Submit your paper: Once you have finished editing and revising your paper, it is time to submit it. Be sure to follow any guidelines provided by your instructor or supervisor, and double-check that you have properly formatted your paper and included all necessary citations.

By following these steps, you can write a clear and well-written thesis paper that effectively communicates your ideas and arguments. Remember to give yourself plenty of time to research, write, and revise, and don't be afraid to seek help if you need it. With a little bit of effort and dedication, you can successfully complete your thesis paper and move on to the next stage of your academic journey.

(DOC) Impacts of STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAM

effects of the structural adjustment program

These results support the hypothesis that, in thepost-adjustment period timber production but notcocoa land expansion is an important proximatefactor determining forest loss in Ghana. Expand The results indicate that the soil conservation program to convert slope fields into forest or pasture is an effective way to combat soil erosion, however, a subsidy that is higher than profit of land use activity of slope fields before their conversion into forest and pasture is needed to encourage farmers to join the conservation program. West Africa has experienced the most rapidand recent deforestation of all regions, and Ghanahas one of the highest rates of deforestation inWest Africa. The next step was to determine whether thepiecewise linear PW or the switching SW re-gression approaches allowing for the influence ofstructural adjustment is preferred to the continuousregression of the entire 196595 period. Cropper, M, and C. Structural adjustment is dead, long live structural adjustment. In fact, higher producerprices of cocoa may encourage cocoa farmers toinvest in existing cocoa farms including purchas-ing inputs such as insecticides rather than convert-ing new forest lands, Although our analysis did notshow that maize land expansion directly influencesforest loss, higher prices of, and the removal of,input subsidies may help reduce the dependence ofmaize production on land.

Next

The Effects of the Structural Adjustment Program on typemoon.org and Barbier The Effects of the Structural Adjustment Program 67 SAP

effects of the structural adjustment program

African governments responded to their newly acquired fortune by increasing government expenditures in their respective countries thus less government savings. Co-coa land expansion was a significant proximatecause in the pre but not in the post-adjustmentperiod. This meansthat in that period, insecticides were a substitute tococoa land in cocoa production. Forest loss in Ghana has been caused by theinteraction of different factors: social, cultural, po-litical and economic. Ghana is among thecountries that is yet to fully use this new estimation approach. This has been exacerbated byhigh levels of waste in timber extraction estimatedto be as high as 50% Nash 1990; Chachu 1989. Increased timber production and ag-ricultural expanison are considered to be the maincauses of this forest loss, However, what is lessclear is whether recent deforestation trends havebeen affected by the sectoral and macroeconomicpolicies associated with Structural AdjustmentPrograms SAP.

Next

The Effects of the Structural Adjustment Programs on Economic Growth …

effects of the structural adjustment program

Equation 17 indicates that thestock of forest Iand should be employed in timberproduction and other environmental purposes up tothe point where the benefits are equal to its socialcost. Given theincreasing producer price of cocoa, farmers maynow have the incentive to rehabilitate existingfarms. What is IMF structural adjustment program? How does structural adjustment worsen poverty? Retrieved from The World Bank Group : Leftwich, A. Variable Coefficients Values Values Elast. First impact that we had seen is Poverty.

Next

What are the effects of structural adjustment?

effects of the structural adjustment program

Therefore, deci-sions on maize land in the current year depend more on what prices werein the previous year. The Forests for the Trees? INTRODUCTION At independence, most African countries had their economies rely heavily on the production of primary commodities especially agriculture. A 1000 haincrease in harvested cocoa land expansion leads toa reduction in forest loss by 0. In the first part of the analysis, a four-equation recursive model, consisting of forest loss, cocoa land, maize land and timber production equations, is employed to examine the impact of the SAP on forest loss. Global Warming: Economic Policy Re- sponses. The model is used toderive a recursive relationship for forest land con-version to cocoa land, maize land and timber ex-traction as functions of sectoral output and inputprices and other factors, and a forest loss equation. There is a significant difference between the im-pact of a change in the price of insecticide used incocoa production and forest loss in Ghana table 6 in the pre and post-adjustment period.


Next

What are the impacts of structural adjustment program?

effects of the structural adjustment program

. SAP, Agriculture, Timber Extraction andForest Loss in Ghana Forest loss in Ghana has been so extensive andrapid that it is becoming increasingly difficult toget precise figures for the countrys present forestcover and rates of deforestation. The SAPs further contributed to economic recession resulting in the Government reducing per capita expenditure on education among other social services. Journal of Business Research, Vol. In recenttimes, however, remote sensing approaches have been used to give amore accurate estimate Rudel and Roper 1997. Moreover, the programs are said to have lessened national leaders to tribal chiefs leading to the infusion of tribalism in all sectors of development thus being an obstacle to growth and development Rono, 2002. From the adjustment country perspective, consumption of natural capital is a simple and effective response to the requirements of short term improvement in the economic performance.


Next

The Effects of Structural Adjustment Programs

effects of the structural adjustment program

The removal of subsidies on inputs like in-secticides, and ammonium sulphate discouragesthe use of these inputs and therefore may haveincreased the use of land in agricultural production. Project: Green, Final Report Cambridge University. However trade liberalization worked out to be a disadvantage of local farmers as it allowed for cheaper imports of subsidized agricultural commodities from western countries. Legon ISSER, University of Ghana. However the positive effects came accompanied with a list of negative impacts too.

Next

[PDF] The Effects of the Structural Adjustment Program on Deforestation in Ghana

effects of the structural adjustment program

Thus, SAPs are unnecessary given the state is acting in its best interest. Piecewise linear and switching regression approaches we used to distinguish between the influence of the post from the pre-adjustment policy impacts on forest land use, The overall results show that cocoa land expansion and timber production, but not maize land expansion, are significant causes of forest loss in Ghana. World Development 19 9 : 1145-1151. First, thedata were separated into pre-adjustment 1965-82 and post-adjustment 198395 periods. What is the impact of SAPs? What are the impact of SAP? In particular, these programmes undermine access to quality and affordable healthcare and adversely impact upon social determinants of health, such as income and food availability. The level of corruption in a country can also influence the success of SAPs. Estimations done for 1991-95 using the annual national rate of inflation.

Next

What are the disadvantages of structural adjustment program?

effects of the structural adjustment program

As a result of this, the poor are continuously being exposed to austere socio-economic risks for instance retrenchment and unemployment. Structural adjustment programs SAPs consist of loans structural adjustment loans; SALs provided by the International Monetary Fund IMF and the World Bank WB to countries that experience economic crises. In the next sec-tion, we attempt to estimate the reduced form de-mand equations 25 to 27 and deforestationequation 28 , and use them to explore the hypoth-esis that the Structural Adjustment Program imple-mented in Ghana in the 1980s influenced theserelationships. Implementing the above procedures led to thefollowing results for the overall model, The MWDtest showed that, the linear functional form waspreferred to the log-log functional form in all thefour equations. Study of Incentive,r for the Sustainable Manage- ment of the Tropical High Fores~ of Ghana. It is broadly agreed that high levels of inflation have negative consequences on growth and poverty. The esti-mated price elasticities for forest loss are presentedin table 6.

Next

The Effects of the Structural Adjustment Program on Deforestation in Ghana

effects of the structural adjustment program

As of today, Jamaica has an outstanding unpaid loan in the amount of 528. Barbier 1994 also reports that in manyAfrican countries, around half of the area that isinitially logged is subsequently deforested, whilethere is little if any deforestation of previously un-logged forest lands. And as notedbefore, in spite of the high subsidies on inputs,farmers could still not afford the input, and there-fore were more dependent on the forest land forincreased production. Bugas Professor of Natural Resource and Environmental Economics with the Department of Economics and Fi- nance at the University of Wyoming. M t is the outputof maize in number of bags in each time period, t,Lm t is the total land input use in maize productionand ~ t represents other inputs used in maizeproduction. The next step in the analysis is tolook at how output and input prices in the agricul-tural and forestry sectors during the pre and post-adjustment periods may have influenced theseproximate causes of forest loss in Ghana. Atentative inference from the above results is that ifthe right incentives that influence these com-modities such as output and input prices can befound, their role in forest loss in tropical countriescould be reduced.

Next