Characteristics of modernization sociology. Modernization Definition & Explanation 2023-01-02
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Modernization is a process of social, economic, and political change that involves the transformation of traditional societies into modern ones. It is a process that has occurred throughout human history, but has accelerated in recent centuries with the rise of capitalism and industrialization. In sociology, modernization is often studied as a way to understand how societies change and how individuals adapt to these changes.
There are several key characteristics of modernization that are important for sociologists to consider. First, modernization involves a shift from traditional, agrarian societies to more urban, industrialized societies. This involves changes in the way people work, live, and relate to one another. For example, in traditional societies, people often live in small, isolated communities where they rely on farming and other forms of agriculture for their livelihood. In modern societies, people are more likely to live in cities and work in factories or offices.
Another characteristic of modernization is the increased division of labor and specialization. In traditional societies, people typically perform a variety of tasks and are self-sufficient. In modern societies, people tend to specialize in one particular area of work, leading to increased efficiency and productivity. This division of labor also leads to the development of new industries and technologies, as people are able to focus their energy and expertise on specific areas of work.
A third characteristic of modernization is the increased standardization of culture. As societies become more interconnected and globalized, they tend to adopt similar values, beliefs, and practices. This can lead to a loss of cultural diversity and a homogenization of society.
Finally, modernization is often accompanied by social and political changes. In traditional societies, authority is often based on tradition and inherited status. In modern societies, authority is often based on merit and individual achievement. This can lead to the emergence of new forms of government and social organization, such as democracy and civil society.
Overall, modernization is a complex process that involves significant changes in the way people live, work, and relate to one another. It has both positive and negative impacts on society, and sociologists continue to study its effects on individuals and communities.
Modernization: Meaning and Complexities
The Asian Green Revolution. The introduction of the adult franchise and the federal parliamentary form of the political structure has carried new political values to all the sections of the population. The people could see before their eyes the increasing concentration of wealth on the one hand and increasing constitution of large sections of people on the other. This means that as one country modernizes and the backwardness in a country deepens then the underprivileged society will become increasingly sensitive to the contrast between itself and the successfully modernizing state Gwynne, 2008. Planned legal reforms in Hindu marriage and inheritance laws have tremendously influenced the Hindu family system. Now days most of the Asian countries depend more on the Chinese goods then the ones from the United States.
Social Change: Definition, Characteristics, Causes, Types, and Examples
The Economic History Review, 12 1 , 1—16. For example: 1 Gandhi and his concept of Non-Violence. In the transitional societies of Asia, which produce far less wealth than those of Latin America, the consequences of over- urbanization are even more disruptive. Environments like this are more prone to attract investments and entrepreneurs, than corrupt societies characterized by nepotism. E Jones, social change occurs when social processes, social patterns, social interactions or social organisations encounter modifications from their everyday functioning. Cultural differences can be seen between modern western countries and less developed ones.
Urban facilities: Modern urban facilities like fax, telephone, internet, cable, mobile phone, gas, electricity, water treatment plant, sewerage system, air ports, railways, road networks, big commercial areas, hospital, school, colleges, universities etc. In General Sociology attempt is made to find out if there are links among various institutions which would be treated independently in Social Physiology, and in that event to discover general social laws. M N Srinivas on secularization: M. The decline of small, traditional communities: rather than life revolving around family and community it now revolves around technology and individualism. The only danger with the mass media is that if these are controlled by the government, they will spread the only one-sided view that suits their political ideology. As a result, no single theory of modernisation has been justifiably presented to explain the process of modernisation for social change. This shows that there are greater depths of analysis of modernization than just economic, thus, a sociological analysis looks slightly deep and could be argued to be more sophisticated.
Secularization: Characteristics, Causes And Effects
Stage 3 was take off; this is seen as the most problematic stage. Neutral Bureaucracy having clear-cut objectives, efficiency and universality act as modernisers. A further implication to sociological analysis is that it ignores some political analysis of modernization. There was a radical transformation in the attitude of the people to the problems which beset them. Even today, in the 21st century, there are still third-world countries and underdeveloped areas where industrialisation has not entirely hit. Find Out How UKEssays.
Sociology is not an exact science. Fourthly, though sociology claimed to be a general science, it was particularly concerned with problems which disturbed society in the wake of sweeping changes brought about by industrial revolution. Comparing society from the 19th century to the current 21st will present itself with drastic changes. What is true of the contemporary society is that the rapid switch over from traditional to modernity is faster because of rapid industrialization, economic development and urbanization. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. In the former case, the investigators and researchers are themselves immersed, as it were, in the objects of their study. Ayesh Perera recently graduated from Harvard University, where he studied politics, ethics and religion.
That is why literacy is now-a-days conceived of as functional literacy having three inter-connected components: literacy, functionality and awareness. Since central conceptions pervade the whole, including its parts, a mutual relationship of give-and-take exists between the whole and its parts. No two-women and common kitchen under a single roof. ADVERTISEMENTS: Thus, modernisation emphasizes upon the diffusion of new standards like scientific outlook, rationalism based on reasoning, universalism, humanism, individualism, secularization, democratic liberalism and the like. The changes brought about by such processes are felt across a large spectrum of interactions and experiences including, education, politics, religion and ones conception of the self and the world in which they live. Though their powers hive been sufficiently curtailed, yet they have been made useful institutions which could serve the growing needs of the society. A few examples of such institutional impediments are land tenure systems that deny peasants the gain from increasing productivity, taxes that slow the flow of goods from one part of the country to another, and elaborate bureaucratic regulations.
Stage II This is a transitional stage characterized by specialization, production surpluses and the construction of infrastructure. The role of village Sarpanch becomes insignificant and is replaced in the cities by the role of the leaders of various political parties and the Unions. The debate is still continuing among sociologists about the goal of sociological investigation. For example they go to market for groceries instead of owning gardens and animals. They began exploring the possible ways in which societies must have evolved from a barbaric stage to a comparatively more advanced stage in course of centuries.
Discussions on Social Physiology are so directed as to throw light on the social background of, say, religion, morals, law, economic institutions, etc. These theories of changing society all evolve to modernisation. Sub social institutions: Job opportunities: These societies are hub of industrial and economic organizations. Thus, the literal meaning of the term refers to anything which is New or Latest in life style, dress, art or thinking. Although Japan still kept many traditional beliefs, it was the most modernized country in Asia at that time. Discontinuity in modernization between macro-structures and micro-structures slowly disappeared. For example, the shift from agrarian societies to industrial ones did not take place within a short period of time, it took gradual processes and time for society to completely shift to one that is based around industrial jobs.
It was during this time that the world experiences two World Wars and also the Great Depression. Thus, modernity implies a bunch of new socio-economic, politico-religious and intellectual system, totally separated from the traditional one. Whenever they failed to connect the missing links in their exposition of the evolution of societies, they relied on conjectures on the basis of their understanding of normal human behaviour. University education may increase the number of students with degrees without an increase in the number of people with modern skills and attitudes. Better income opportunities: Due to economic activity, industries, commercial and better income opportunities are available for the people of materialistic society.
Modernism is more of a philosophical and artistic movement. In the first place, the Formalistic school has restricted the scope of sociology to abstract forms without reference to the concrete expressions of these forms of social relationship in actual social situations. In both cases, modernisation process comes to be woven into the traditional order without endangering or affecting the basic characteristics of the traditional order. General Sociology is thus a synthesis of the various social sciences. This ensures that social institutions and structures are kept in check and help with the growth of society and all its people. The sociologists are expected to look ahead and to suggest guideposts for social action in response to the changes which give rise to social problems. China was successful at modernizing and benefited greatly.