Chapter 16 zinn summary. Howard Zinn 2022-12-10

Chapter 16 zinn summary Rating: 8,6/10 1325 reviews

Chapter 16 of Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" covers the period of the Vietnam War and the protest movement that emerged in response to it. The chapter begins by discussing the origins of the Vietnam War, which began in the 1950s as a conflict between communist North Vietnam and anti-communist South Vietnam. The United States, which saw the conflict as part of the larger Cold War struggle against communism, became increasingly involved in the war, eventually committing over 500,000 troops to the conflict.

As the war dragged on, opposition to it grew among the American public, especially among young people. This opposition was fueled by the high number of casualties and the fact that the war seemed to have no clear purpose or end in sight. The anti-war movement, which included a wide range of people from various political and social backgrounds, took many forms, including protests, sit-ins, and draft resistance.

One of the key events of the anti-war movement was the Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam, which took place in October 1969. This was a nationwide series of protests that included hundreds of thousands of people. Other notable events included the Kent State shootings, in which four students were killed by National Guard troops during a protest, and the Watergate scandal, which brought to light widespread corruption within the Nixon administration.

Despite the efforts of the anti-war movement, the war continued for several more years until the United States withdrew its troops in 1973. The war ultimately ended in 1975 when communist forces took control of Saigon, leading to the unification of Vietnam under a single communist government.

In his chapter, Zinn argues that the Vietnam War was a tragic and unnecessary conflict that resulted in the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives and caused significant damage to both Vietnam and the United States. He also highlights the role of the anti-war movement in bringing about the end of the war, arguing that it was the grassroots efforts of ordinary people that ultimately forced the government to change its policies.

Overall, Chapter 16 of "A People's History of the United States" provides a thorough and critical examination of the Vietnam War and the protest movement that emerged in response to it. It offers a valuable perspective on this significant period in American history and helps to shed light on the complex and often tragic consequences of US foreign policy.

A People’s History of the United States Chapter 6: The Intimately Oppressed Summary & Analysis

chapter 16 zinn summary

This led to public trials that exposed extensive government malfeasance, including evidence of the secret bombing of Cambodia. For instance, Lyndon Johnson, as Senate minority leader, worked not only to pass the censure resolution on McCarthy but also to keep it within the narrow bounds of "conduct. Writers use different literary forms to express their ideas. What more could Hitler do than that? There was certainly not evidence of any immediate danger of violent revolution by the Communist party. Kennedy 1917—1963 and his administration lied to the public about the Bay of Pigs affair, claiming the United States didn't intervene. The government that the United States overthrew was the most democratic Guatemala had ever had.

Next

Free Essays on A People War Chapter 16 Howard Zinn Summary

chapter 16 zinn summary

In the spring of 1954 he began hearings to investigate supposed subversives in the military. Racism was clearly at work. Another document shows that after three years of appeal a meeting took place between Attorney General Herbert Brownell and Chief Justice Fred Vinson of the Supreme Court, and the chief justice assured the Attorney General that if any Supreme Court justice gave a stay of execution, he would immediately call a full court session and override it. The bombings were intended to erode morale. With the full approval of Harry Truman and Winston Churchill, the U.

Next

A People’s History of the United States Chapter 3: Persons of Mean and Vile Condition Summary & Analysis

chapter 16 zinn summary

. It analyzes dissimilarity between two different cultures into applying intercultural competency. Most Revolutionary historians have ignored the contributions of working-class women—the few women they do discuss are genteel wives, such as Abigail Adams. By contrast, Ho Chi Minh aimed to remedy poverty among his people. In fact, China, Korea, Indochina, the Philippines, represented local Communist movements, not Russian fomentation. One of the key black organizers of the era was the intellectual W. Americans felt the aftershocks of the war in a different way.


Next

A People’s History of the United States Chapter 13: The Socialist Challenge Summary & Analysis

chapter 16 zinn summary

The month the war ended in Asia, September 1945, an article appeared in Harper's Magazine by Yale Law Professor Eugene V. A few voices continued to insist that the real war was inside each nation: Dwight Macdonald's wartime magazine Politics presented, in early 1945, an article by the French worker-philosopher Simone Weil: Whether the mask is labeled Fascism, Democracy, or Dictatorship of the Proletariat, our great adversary remains the Apparatus-the bureaucracy, the police, the military. In August 1941, Roosevelt and Churchill met off the coast of Newfoundland and released to the world the Atlantic Charter, setting forth noble goals for the postwar world, saying their countries "seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other," and that they respected "the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live. As Zinn sees it, the Wagner Act created a new distance between union leadership and workers themselves. In one case, he changed the dossier's description of "liberal" to "communistically inclined," in another form "active fellow traveler" to "active Communist," and so on. Period observers noted that military leaders such as George Washington reinforced strict class hierarchies, and the Continental Congress that came together to write the new nation's laws was overwhelming made up of the rich, leaving the same men in power as had been in charge in the colonies. Afterwards, American businesses invested heavily in Greece.

Next

Howard zinn chapter 16 Free Essays

chapter 16 zinn summary

According to Jeremy Brecher Strike! These limited his ability to act. . During the 1950s, America intervened in Korea, among other countries, but faced little opposition among its own people, due to the strength of the liberal consensus. . A right-wing dictatorship was restored.

Next

A People’s History of the United States Chapter 18: The Impossible Victory: Vietnam Summary & Analysis

chapter 16 zinn summary

Nevertheless, at midnight on 10 October, if our demands are not met, we declare the general strike. True, the rivalry with the Soviet Union was real—that country had come out of the war with its economy wrecked and 20 million people dead, but was making an astounding comeback, rebuilding its industry, regaining military strength. He is very bold and is willing to state things that cause quite a bit of controversy. People became very angry, and over 20,000 members of the Bonus Army marched on Washington demanding help. The United States was fighting a new enemy with old tactics.

Next

A People’s History of the United States Chapter 16: A People’s War? Summary & Analysis

chapter 16 zinn summary

There were troubling aspects to all this. The government confiscated over a million acres of land from three American companies, including United Fruit. General Leslie Groves, head of the Manhattan Project, described Truman as a man on a toboggan, the momentum too great to stop it. . The US invasion of Iraq was strongly encouraged by the events of September 11.

Next

Howard Zinn

chapter 16 zinn summary

As Bruce Russet says No Clear and Present Danger : "Throughout the 1930s the United States government had done little to resist the Japanese advance on the Asian continent," But: "The Southwest Pacific area was of undeniable economic importance to the United States-at the time most of America's tin and rubber came from there, as did substantial quantities of other raw materials. But this was three times the proportion of C. Truman's anti-Communism was attractive. Roosevelt had described these as "inhuman barbarism that has profoundly shocked the conscience of humanity. He worked with Congress to reduce or eliminate welfare payments to many and to toughen punishment for illegal immigration. There seemed to be widespread indifference, even hostility, on the part of the Negro community to the war despite the attempts of Negro newspapers and Negro leaders to mobilize black sentiment.

Next

In Chapter 16 of A People's History of the United States, Howard Zinn accuses the US of fighting a people's war but not truly adhering to the values...

chapter 16 zinn summary

The chief witness against him was an old friend, the best man at his wedding, a man who was facing possible perjury charges by the federal government for lying about his political past. The many desperate poor began to take action for themselves. Aka Mark Twain- pen name best known for Huck fin wrote about the gilded age Battle of Little Bighorn 1876. Two years later, Germany invaded Soviet Russia, and the American Communist party, which had repeatedly described the war between the Axis Powers and the Allied Powers as an imperialist war, now called it a "people's war" against Fascism. These gave jobs to thousands of Americans, providing reform and relief, but it wasn't until World War 2 that completely lifted America out of the depression. The 1948 Marshall Plan created a "network of American corporate control all over the globe.


Next

Zinn Chapter summaries

chapter 16 zinn summary

But the election of Franklin D. The worst part is that the vast majority of the people of the United States of America have bought it hook, line and sinker. Roosevelt then wrote to Ibn Sand, promising the United States would not change its Palestine policy without consulting the Arabs. The literature that followed World War II, James Jones's From Here to Eternity, Joseph Heller's Catch-22, and Norman Mailer's The Naked and the Dead captured this GI anger against the army "brass. They are the "guards" in the prison who give the chapter its title; they are shifting their support from the warden to the prisoners: the people.

Next