Athena, the goddess of wisdom, war, and crafts, was a powerful force in Greek mythology. She was known for her bravery and cunning, and was often called upon to defend the gods and mortals alike. One of the most famous stories of Athena's bravery is her battle against Alkyoneos, a giant who terrorized the people of the island of Thrake.
According to the myth, Alkyoneos was the son of the giant Orion and the goddess Eos. He was a giant of great strength and size, and was known for his brutal attacks on the people of Thrake. The people of the island lived in fear of Alkyoneos, and many of them had been killed or taken as slaves by the giant.
Despite the danger, Athena decided to take on Alkyoneos and defend the people of Thrake. She knew that she would need all of her wisdom and strength to defeat the giant, and so she prepared for battle. Athena donned her armor and took up her shield and spear, and set out to face Alkyoneos.
The battle between Athena and Alkyoneos was fierce and intense, with both sides fighting with all their might. Athena was a skilled warrior, and she used her shield and spear to defend herself against the giant's attacks. Despite his size and strength, Alkyoneos was no match for the goddess, and Athena was able to defeat him with ease.
After the battle was over, Athena returned to Thrake as a hero. The people of the island rejoiced at her victory, and they praised her for her bravery and strength. Athena was hailed as a protector of the people, and her victory over Alkyoneos was remembered for generations to come.
In conclusion, Athena's battle against Alkyoneos is a testament to her strength and bravery. She stood up for the people of Thrake and protected them from the giant's attacks, showing that she was not just a goddess of wisdom and war, but also a protector of the people.
Note: These citations are programmatically generated and may be incomplete. One of the scenes pictured below is of Athena battling the giant Alkyoneos. In 1878, the German engineer Carl Humann began official excavations on the acropolis of Pergamon, this excavation lasted until 1886. His supplication is supported by his mother Ge or Gaia , the earth, whose upper body appears; both hands are lifted to Athena. From left to right, figures associated with water: Nereus and Doris, Oceanos, and part of Tethys? Just as impressive as their dynamic poses, these two panels depict a diversity of giant types—from human to animal. Staatliche Museen, Berlin Single figures of Gauls from the earlier victory monuments that survive in the form of Roman copies bear clear resemblance to the giants from the Altar frieze. The writhing, overpowering figures seem contorted, stretched, almost racked, into an apparently endless, uncontrolled in fact, very carefully calculated variety of strenuous, coiling postures to which the dynamic integration of the whole composition is due.
Upon negotiating with the Turkish government, who was also a participant in the excavation, it was agreed that all frieze fragments found at the time would become the property of the Berlin museums, so the world could see its beauty. North side of grand staircase, Pergamon Altar photo: The sides of the altar As visitors continued along either side of the Altar they encountered gods and goddesses thematically assembled for example, the twin gods Apollo and Artemis with their mother Leto. Greece was trying to reassert its superiority, as Athens had done in building the Parthenon following the Persian Wars. The frieze, and its enigmatic central characters, first draw viewers in via the two central panels featuring the god Zeus and the goddess Athena. End note The Pergamene Acropolis was first rediscovered as early as the 14th century when Cyriacus of Ancona, an Italian antiquarian, visited the ruins. In Berlin, Italian restorers reassembled the panels comprising the frieze from the thousands of fragments that had been.
Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon (video)
Unlike the Classical version, however, Pergamon's reveled in melodrama. In a detail illustrating Athena's destruction of a son of Gaia, the Titan earth goddess, the energy of the juxtaposed diagonal planes seems barely contained. In comparison to other Hellenistic kingdoms kingdoms formed after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B. Compare the thick, curly, wild locks of hair of the Wounded Gaul in the Louvre to that of a giant from the Zeus panel. His face, with its wrinkled brow and open mouth, exaggerates his suffering. The Classical-style Parthenon metopes have evolved from the Archaic depictions of the Siphnian treasury to emphasize a clearer distinction between god and giant. This last pot depicts Heracles, with a headlock perhaps dragging his opponent, which might be a representation of Heracles dragging Alcyoneus out of his homeland.
Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail from the Altar of Zeus Frieze
Present remains of the Great Altar of Zeus, Pergamon Most of the material excavated by Carl Humann 1839-96 in the late 1870s and early 1880s was transported to Berlin The approach was from the back, so that only after walking round the building did the great flight of steps leading up to the altar come into view. From left to right, figures associated with water: Nereus and Doris, Oceanos, and part of Tethys? They depict events from the life of Telephus, legendary founder of the city of Pergamon and son of the hero Heracles and Auge, one of Tegean king Aleus's daughters. Hornblower, Simon and Spawforth, Antony. The Altar was erected some 50 years after the Attalid Group. He is perfectly human except for big wings. Giants kneel further to the right.
Browse this content A beginner's guide Tiny timeline: ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in a global context, 5th—3rd millennia B. Altar of Zeus, from Pergamon c. Notably, the earth goddess is the only figure to be identified with an inscription on the frieze itself rather than above or below, as with the other gods and giants emphasizing her role as an intermediary. West New York: Oxford University Press, 1988 , pp. The battle of the gods against the Giants in Pergamon may therefore allude to the Pergamese victory over invading Gauls in the late 3rd century. Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail from the Altar of Zeus Frieze.
The cattle shown on the sixth century pots, might thus represent either Alcyoneus' cattle stolen from Helios, or Heracles' cattle taken from Geryon. The gods are generally portrayed above the giants; the giants have shed the majority of their hoplite armor in favor of donning animal skins and wielding rocks or clubs, which connect them to the natural world. Schraudolph San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, 1996-1997 , pp. The Athenian gold and ivory pediment see a reconstruction drawing of it On the Parthenon, the Athenians used myths to provide commentaries on their contemporary reality. In the late 1990s, the Altar was part of a conversation about the repatriation of Turkish heritage. In this case, the scenes may represent the triumph of Athenian law and justice, fundamental to the success and order of the city-state. The Altar once stood in a sacred precinct on the acropolis of the ancient city of Pergamon on the west coast of modern-day Turkey , which was ruled by the Attalid dynasty from 282—133 B.
Athena Battling Alkyoneos frieze is a snapshot of agony, victory, violence,and beauty
The remains of the building were dismantled after excavation in the late nineteenth century and re-erected in the Berlin Museum in about 1900. Another famous representation of Gigantomachy is found on the east metopes of the Parthenon. The clothing would have been highlighted in realistic colours and the background in a dark colour, so that the cool, pale marble skin of the figures would have stood out boldly Boardman 1993. A few, besides, are even more overtly animal-like, almost monstrous. Edited and translated by Mary A. From myth to reality: the Pergamon Altar as a victory monument Prior to the construction of the Altar, the first king of Pergamon, Attalos I, set up monuments to commemorate his victory over the Gauls and legitimize his rule.
Picón and Seán Hemingway, eds. According to the myth, the Giants attacked the gods, but the Olympians learned that they could only emerge victorious if a mortal helped them. The choice of subject matter held great symbolic significance for the Attalid kings. Alcyoneus stretches out his left arm in a gesture of supplication, while with his right hand he tries to tear the hand of Athena away from his hair. Following the Persian wars 545—448 B. It was also intended to connect the Altar of Zeus Chicago citation style Unknown Artist.
Greek Art & Architecture: Hellenistic Architecture: Pergamon
One of the most recognized examples of the gigantomachy, on the east metopes of the Parthenon 447—438 B. And on some of the pots Alcyoneus is apparently sleeping, with a winged The presence of cattle on several of the pots suggests that the story also involved cattle in some way e. Zeus, Heracles, Poseidon, and later Athena were the main protagonists fighting against the Giants in representations of this epic battle. The gigantomachy, meaning a war of giants, particularly the fabulous war of the giants against heaven , was chosen for the Altar of Zeus as a metaphor for the Pergamene victory over the Gauls in Asia Minor. . Muscles swell in great hard knots, eyes bulge beneath puckered brows, teeth are clenched in agony.