Abrams orientation of critical theories. Abrams orientation of critical theories 2022-12-08
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Abrams orientation of critical theories
Some critics tried to understand a poem as a 'heterocosm' i. For one thing, these four co-ordinates rnr stantsf hut variables: they differ in significance according tothe theory in which they occur. Walter Raleigh Oxford, 1908 , pp. Almost all the major critics of the English romantic generation phrased definitions or key statements showing a parallel alignment from work to poet. The objective orientation was just beginning to emerge in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. If a poem fails to please, as a work of art it is nothing. I have chosen to discuss Aristotle's theory of art unde r the heading ofmimetic theories, because it sets out from, and makes frequent referenceback to the concept of imitation.
And since in works 'appealing wnollv to ob-servation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of du-ration and continuance of esteem,' Shakespeare's long survival as a poet'read without any other reason than the desire for pleasure' is the best ev-idence for his artistic excellence. Mimetic Theories Mimetic TheoriesThe oldest and the most primitive of the four categoriesThe critical theories that deal with mimesis are oriented towards the universe and its role in the work of art. In tragedy the plot is given the utmost role. It was commonly said that art was an imitation but an imitation which is only instrumental towards producing effects upon an audience. Nevertheless, lik e Bat-teux, Lessing concludes that poetry, no less than painting, is imitation. To make matters easier he has arranged the four elements in a convenient triangular pattern with the work of art, the thing to be explained in the center. He says that an epic poem is not poem at all.
Her novels deal with women who raise voice in their life for recognition of their self. He wanted to reduce the rules of art to one single principle. Almost all the major critics of the English ro-mantic generation phrased definitions or key statements showin g a par-allel alignment fro m wor k to poet. Repeatedl y Johnson maintains tha t 'this therefore is thepraise of Shakespeare, that his drama is the mirrour oHifg,' and of inani-mate nature as well: 'He was an exact surveyor of the Inanimate world. Imitation continued to be a prominent item in the critical vocabulary for a long time after Aristotle in fact, all the way through the eighteenth century.
The more comprehensive term universe is better, and iv. Now, while we have some of the earlier facts fresh in mind, letme indicate what happened to salient elements of traditional criticism i nthe essay s 'What Is Poetry? The fact is that many the-ories of art canno t readily be compared at all, because they lack a com-mon ground on which to meet an d clash. In this systematic appraisa l of the works them-selves, we lind that mimesis retain s for Johnson a measure of authorityas criterion. The intention of this book is to chronicle the evolution and in the early nineteenth century the triumph, in its divers e forms, of this radical shift t o the artist in the alignment of aesthetic thinking, and to describe the principal alternate theorie s against which this approach had to compete. These 4 are variables. Donald Stauffer Princeton , 1941.
(PDF) M.H. ABRAMS' "ORIENTATION OF CRITICAL THEORIES": AN OUTLINE
The work or the artistic product this is a human product. ABRAM S Orientation of Critical Theories excellent wor k of art, and when excerpted and codified these rules serveic artist in making and the critics in judging any future product. In iact, the near-unanimity with which post Ren-aissance critic s lauded and echoed Aristotle's Poetics is deceptive. Each of the other terms also varies both in meaning and functioning according to the critical theory in which it occurs. This point of view has been comparatively rare in literary criticism.
He says that lyric poetry is more poetic than other forms because it expresses emotions better. In discussing the natureof art, Socrates makes the point that there are three beds: the Idea which'is the essence of the bed' and is made by God, the bed made by the car-penter, and the bed found in a painting. Exploration of this aesthetic idea takes Mill to a drastic altering of the critical commonplaces. In America, at least, some form of the objective point of view hasalready gone far to displace its rivals as the reigning mode of literary crit-icism. The poet and the historian differ not by writing in verse or in prose. The work ceases then to be regarded as primarily a reflection of nature, actual or improved; the mirror held up to nature becomes transparent and yields the reader insights into the mind and heart of the poet himself. In the course of the 18 th century, increasing attention was given to the mental constitution of the poet.
M. H. Abrams Orientation of Critical Theories: an typemoon.org
Eliot wrote, When we are considering poetry we must consider it primarily as poetry and not another thing. Artistotle also in defines poetry the Poetics as imitation. This theory has been rare in literary criticism. Smith London, 1905 , pp. Since this is a human product, the next common element is the artist.
Dr. Sreekumar's English Literature & Career Advancement: Orientation of Critical Theories
This idea is famously explained by Socrates in the tenth book of theRepublicwhere he says that there are three beds :one the idea of the bedSecond a physical bed made by the carpenter who imitates the ideal bedThird is the bed painted by the artist. Its aim is not to instruct or please but simply to exist. Expressive TheoriesThe expressive theories are a product of the Romantic Movement which emphasized on the power of the poet's mindAccording to the expressive theory: A work of art is an external manifestation of internal thoughts and feelings and the creative process is a result of the impulses of feeling combined with the poet's thoughts and perceptionsThe poets mind therefore is the central point of attention Expressive TheoriesThe expressive theories evaluate poetry by trying to figure out whether the diction and figures of speech are a natural outcome of the poet's emotions or a deliberate effort. Mimetic TheoriesSome examples of 18thcentury discussions of imitationCharles Batteux, book name The Arts Reduced to a Single Principle, wanted to reduce the rules of art to one single principle. The diversity of aesthetic theories make the task of a historian a difficult one as many theories of art are not readily comparable and it is hard to find a common ground. Po-etry, said Mill, i n a phrasing which anticipates T.
Pragmatic TheoriesPragmatic orientation has been the principal aesthetic attitude of western criticism beginning from Horace up to the 18th centuryThe development of science and increased knowledge of psychology, the influence of the works of Hobbes and Locke in the seventeen centurythe poet and his mental capacities gradually became the focal point of criticism Expressive Theories Expressive TheoriesCritical theories oriented towards the relation between the work and the artistThe expressive orientation is found in the works of Longinus in his discussions of the sublime which according to Longinus has its sources in the poet's thoughts and emotionsHowever Abrams considers the year 1800 marked by the publication of Wordsworth's Preface to theLyricalBalladsas the date when the expressive orientation begins to surface in English literary criticism. When the poets make a personal appearanceall the major ones are dismissed, with extravagant courtesy, from th eideal Republic; upon later application, a somewhat greater number are ad-mitted to the second-best state of the Laws, but with a radically dimin-ished repertory. The reason for this survival Johnson ex-plains o n the subsidiary principle that 'nothin g can please many, aqdplease long, but jus t representations of general nature. When the poet's act of utterance is not itself the end, but a means to an end viz. Carritt Oxford, 1931 , p.
This theory first appeared in PlatosRepublic. I think, he said, that we may fairly designate him as theimitator of that which the others make. Contrary to Prall's pessimistic appraisal , thesetheories have not been futile, bu t as working conceptions o f the matter ,end, and ordonnance of art, have been greatly effective in shaping the ac-tivities of creative artists. In Plato and in Aristotle, the work of art is seen as an imitation. As a result i t is hard to findwhere they agree, where disagree, or even, what the points at issue are.